The rulers of the Akkadian Empire, according to the Sumerian Kings List:
|Sharru-kinu||2334 BC||2279 BC||Son of a priestess|
|Rimush||2278 BC||2270 BC||Son of Sharru-kinu|
|Manishtushu||2269 BC||2255 BC||Son of Sharru-kinu|
|Naram-Sin||2254 BC||2218 BC||Son of Manishtushu|
|Shar-Kali-Sharri||2218 BC||2193 BC||Son of Naram-Sin|
|Igigi, Imi, Nanum, Ilulu||2193 BC||2190 BC|
|Dudu||2190 BC||2169 BC|
|Shu-turul / Shu-durul||2168 BC||2153 BC||Son of Dudu|
The rulers of Sumer after the Gutian period, according to the Sumerian Kings List:
|Utu-hengal||2119 BC||2112 BC|
|Ur-Nammu||2112 BC||2094 BC||Son-in-law of Utu-hengal|
|Shulgi||2094 BC||2048 BC||Son of Ur-Nammu|
|Amar-Sin||2048 BC||2039 BC||Son of Shulgi|
|Shu-Sin||2039 BC||2030 BC||Son of Shulgi|
|Ibbi-Sin||2030 BC||2004 BC||Son of Shu-Sin|
To find out when the members of Abraam’s clan lived, I used data from the Old Testament. By correlating biblical events with historical facts, I have been able to establish an exact timeline. It was vital the equivalence of the Terah’s family departure to Ur with that of the Ur-Nammu’s coronation (2112 BC), that of the departure to Harran with that of Shulgi’s coronation (2094 BC) and that of Abraam’s departure from Harran with the Amar-Sin’s coronation (2048 BC). The biblical Book of Genesis, which contains the story of the patriarch’s clan, states that „Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran” (12:4), and „these are the days of the years of Abraham’s life which he lived, an hundred threescore and fifteen years” (25:7); therefore, he was born in 2123 BC and died in 1948 BC; Sarra was ten years younger than Abraam, as he himself said when he learned that Yishak would be born: „Shall a child be born unto him that is an hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear?” (17:17). Which means that she was born in 2113 BC. „Sarah was an hundred and seven and twenty years old” (23:1) when she died, videlicet she lived until 1986 BC. In the case of Abraam’s father, things get a little complicated. The Bible says that „Terah lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran” (11:26), which means that he was born in 2193 BC. In the Orthodox Bible, „the days of Terah in the land of Haran were two hundred and five years” (11:32); in other versions, like the King James Bible, „the days of Terah were two hundred and five years: and Terah died in Haran”. As the Orthodox version is the only one who claims that Terah lived in Harran for 205 years (which means that he died at 304), and all the others that his total life span was 205 years, we can consider that in the Orthodox translation there is a misinterpretation. Thus, if Terah died at the age of 205, it means that he lived until 1988 BC.
Hence the rest of the calculations are simple, the 11th chapter of Genesis describing „the generations of Shem”, one of the Noah’s sons:
„Shem was an hundred years old, and begat Arphakshad two years after the flood: And Shem lived after he begat Arphakshad five hundred years, and begat sons and daughters” (11:10-11).
In the Orthodox Bible, the Septuagint, the Gospel of Luke and the Book of Jubilees, Kenan is Arpakshad’s son and Shelach is Kenan’s son. In the King James Bible, Kenan is missing and „Arphakshad lived five and thirty years, and begat Shelach: And Arphakshad lived after he begat Shelach four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters” (11:12-13). As the King James version is the only one who removed Kenan, we will chose the Orthodox version: „Arphakshad lived one hundred and thirty five years and begat Kenan: And Arphakshad lived after he begat Kenan three hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters” (11:12); „Kenan lived one hundred and thirty years and begat Shelach: And Kenan lived after he begat Shelach three hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters” (11:13).
„And Shelach lived thirty years, and begat Eber: And Shelach lived after he begat Eber four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters” (11:14-15). In the Orthodox Bible and the Septuagint, Shelach lived 460 years.
„Eber lived four and thirty years, and begat Peleg: And Eber lived after he begat Peleg four hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters” (11:16-17). In the Orthodox Bible and the Septuagint, he lived 404 years.
„Peleg lived thirty years, and begat Re’u: And Peleg lived after he begat Re’u two hundred and nine years, and begat sons and daughters” (11:18-19). In the Orthodox Bible and the Septuagint, he lived 339 years.
„Re’u lived two and thirty years, and begat Serug: And Re’u lived after he begat Serug two hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters” (11:20-21). In the Orthodox Bible and the Septuagint, he lived 339 years.
„Serug lived thirty years, and begat Nahor: And Serug lived after he begat Nahor two hundred years, and begat sons and daughters” (11:22-23). In the Orthodox Bible and the Septuagint, he lived 330 years.
„Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begat Terah: And Nahor lived after he begat Terah an hundred and nineteen years, and begat sons and daughters” (11:24-25). In the Orthodox Bible and the Septuagint, he lived 304 years.
For the Abraam’s descendants, the Book of Genesis provide us more necessary data. „Abram was fourscore and six years old, when Hagar bare Yishma’el to Abram” (16:16), „And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, an hundred and thirty and seven years” (25:17). Which means that Yishma’el was born in 2037 BC and died in 1900 BC.
„Abraham was an hundred years old, when his son Yishaq was born unto him” (21:5), „And the days of Yishaq were an hundred and fourscore years” (35:28). This means that Yishaq lived from 2023 BC until 1843 BC.
About the twins Esaw and Ya’aqob, the Bible says that „Yishaq was threescore years old when she bare them” (25:26), which means they were born in 1963 BC. „The whole age of Ya’aqob was an hundred forty and seven years” (47:28), therefore he died in 1816 BC. The Babylonian Talmud claims that Esaw was killed by Hushim immediately after Ya’aqob’s death.
To find out when Yosep was born, Ya’aqob’s favorite son, we have to make some calculations. „Yosep was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt” (41:46); „seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt” (41:29) and „seven years of famine” (41:30) followed. After two years of famine, Ya’aqob and his family moved to Egypt: „For these two years hath the famine been in the land” (45:6). Asked then how old is he, „Ya’aqob said unto Pharaoh, The days of the years of my pilgrimage are an hundred and thirty years” (47:9). Which means Ya’aqob and his family arrived in Egypt in 1833 BC, nine years after Yosep’s appearance before the pharaoh. Therefore, Yosep was born in 1872 BC. From the last chapter of Genesis we find that „Yosep lived an hundred and ten years” (50:22), namely until 1762 BC.
After all these calculations, we can establish the genealogy of Abraam’s clan from Shem, Noah’s son, to Yosep:
|Shem||3293 BC||2693 BC||Son of Noah and Emzara|
|Arpakshad||3193 BC||2728 BC||Son of Shem and Sedeqetelebab|
|Kenan||3058 BC||2598 BC||Son of Arpakshad and Rasu’aya|
|Shelach||2928 BC||2468 BC||Son of Kenan and Milkah|
|Eber||2798 BC||2294 BC||Son of Shelach and Mu’ak|
|Peleg||2664 BC||2325 BC||Son of Eber|
|Re’u||2534 BC||2195 BC||Son of Peleg and Lomna|
|Serug||2402 BC||2072 BC||Son of Re’u and Ora|
|Nahor||2272 BC||2068 BC||Son of Serug and Milkah|
|Terah||2193 BC||1988 BC||Son of Nahor and Iyoska|
|Abram / Abraam||2123 BC||1948 BC||Son of Terah and Amsalai|
|Yishma’el||2037 BC||1900 BC||Son of Abraam and Hagar|
|Yishaq||2023 BC||1843 BC||Son of Abraam and Sarra|
|Esaw / Edom||1963 BC||1816 BC||Son of Yishaq and Ribqa|
|Ya’aqob / Yisra’el||1963 BC||1816 BC||Son of Yishaq and Ribqa|
|Yosep||1872 BC||1762 BC||Son of Ya’aqob and Rahel|
Having all this informations, I was able to decode other events in the story of Abraam’s family, such as:
„Yishaq was forty years old when he took Ribqa to wife” (25:20), meaning that they married in 1983 BC.
The Talmud claims that Esaw gave Ya’aqob his firstborn right immediately after Abraam’s death, namely in 1948 BC. The twins were 15-years-old then, which the Talmud also confirms.
„And Esaw was forty years old when he took to wife Yehudit the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemat the daughter of Elon the Hittite” (26:34), namely în 1923 BC.
„Yosep, being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brethren” (37:2) when he was taken as a slave to Egypt, so that happened in 1855 BC. At 30 years he became a visier, namely in 1842 BC. Seven years of prosperity and seven of famine followed, ended in 1828 BC.
Here is the chronology of the twilight of the gods, from the innkeeper Kug-Bau’s coronation to Yosep’s death in Egypt:
2465 BC – Innkeeper Kug-Bau is crowned in Kish by Marduk.
2402 BC – Serug, Terah’s grandfather, is born in Nippur.
2365 BC – Queen Kug-Bau dies in Kish. Her son, Puzur-Suen, gets the throne of Sumer.
2340 BC – King Puzur-Suen dies in Kish. His son, Ur-Zababa, ascends to the throne.
2334 BC – Lugal-zage-si from Umma kills Ur-Zababa from Kish and take his throne, being killed then in Uruk by Sharru-kinu, who crown himself as the king of Sumer, before founding the Akkadian Empire.
2325 BC – Peleg, Terah’s great-great-grandfather, dies in Nippur.
2294 BC – Eber, Terah’s great-great-great-grandfather, dies in Nippur.
2279 BC – Sharru-kinu dies in Agade, the capital of his empire.
2278 BC – Rimush, Sharru-kinu’s son, take the throne of the Akkadian Empire.
2272 BC – In Nippur is born Nahor, Terah’s father and Abraam’s grandfather.
2270 BC – Rimush, Sharru-kinu’s son, is assassinated in Agade by several members of his royal court.
2269 BC – Manishtushtu, Rimush’s brother and Sharru-kinu’s son, gets the throne of Akkad.
2260 BC – Manishtushtu rebuilds in Ninive Ishtar’s destroyed temple.
2255 BC – Manishtushtu, Sharru-kinu’s son, dies in Agade.
2254 BC – Naram-Sin, Manishtushtu’s son, is crowned.
2218 BC – Naram-Sin, Sharru-kinu’s grandson, dies. His son, Shar-Kali-Sharri, become the ruler of the Akkadian Empire.
2195 BC – Re’u, Terah’s great-grandfather, dies in Nippur.
2193 BC – Shar-Kali-Sharri, Naram-Sin’s son and Sharru-kinu’s grandson, dies. In Nippur is born Terah, Nahor’s and Iyoska’s son. In Mesopotamia the Gutians invasion begins. The Akkadian Empire is simultaneously ruled by four kings: Igigi, Imi, Nanum and Ilulu.
2190 BC – Dudu defeats the four kings and take the throne of Akkad.
2169 BC – King Dudu dies.
2168 BC – Dudu’s son, Shu-turul, receive the throne, becoming the last ruler of the Akkadian Empire.
2153 BC – Shu-turul dies. The Akkadian Empire is destroyed by the Gutians.
2123 BC – Abram, Terah’s and Amsalai’s son, is born in Nippur.
2119 BC – Governor of Uruk, Utu-hengal, becomes the king of Sumer after defeating Tirigan, the king of the Gutians.
2113 BC – In Nippur is born Sarai, Haran’s sister and Abram’s future wife.
2112 BC – King Utu-hengal dies. His son-in-law, Ur-Nammu, governor of Ur, receive the throne of Sumer. Terah and his family move from Nippur to Ur.
2094 BC – King Ur-Nammu dies. Shulgi, his son, ascends to the throne of Sumer. Terah and his family move from Ur to Harran.
2072 BC – Serug, Terah’s grandfather, dies in Nippur. King Shulgi proclaim himself a god.
2068 BC – Nahor, Terah’s father and Abraam’s grandfather, dies in Nippur.
2066 BC – Sumerian king Shulgi gives to Elam’s viceroy his daughter’s hand and the city of Larsa, receiving in return a legion of elamite troops.
2053 BC – King Shulgi submits the western provinces of the Middle East with the help of his elamite legion.
2051 BC – Enlil kills Enki. Anu decides that Enlil shall leave the planet and Marduk, Enki’s son, will receive the throne of Earth.
2048 BC – King Shulgi, Ur-Nammu’s son, dies. His son, Amar-Sin, take the throne of Sumer. At Marduk’s orders, Abraam, Sarra and Lot leave Harran for Canaan.
2047 BC – Abraam, Sarra and Lot arrive in Herakleopolis, at the court of pharaoh Merikare Khety, king of the Lower Egypt.
2042 BC – Abraam, Sarra and Lot leave Egypt for Canaan because the conflict between the pharaohs Merikare Khety and Nebhepetre Mentuhotep.
2039 BC – The Mesopotamian kings Amar-Sin, Kudur-Lagamar, Eri-Aku and Tud-ghula defeat the Jordanian kings alliance in the Sidim Valley. Abraam defeats them at Dan and frees his nephew captured by Mesopotamians. Amar-Sin, Shulgi’s son, dies on his way home. His brother, Shu-Sin, takes over the throne of Sumer.
2037 BC – Yishma’el is born, the son of Abraam and Hagar (pharaoh Merikare Khety’s daughter).
2030 BC – King Shu-Sin, Shulgi’s son, dies. Ibbi-Sin, his son, becomes the last king of Sumer.
2024 BC – The god Ninurta uses seven nuclear bombs to destroy Marduk’s loyal cities, including Sodom and Gomorrah. Abraam and Sarra go to Gerar, to the court of the Philistine king Abimelek.
2023 BC – Yishaq, Abraam’s and Sarra’s son, is born.
2004 BC – Ibbi-Sin, the last king of Sumer, dies. Enlil leaves the Earth after destroying Sumer with an unprecedented storm.
1988 BC – Terah, Abraam’s father, dies in Harran.
1986 BC – Ninurta asks Abraam to sacrifice Yishak, but Marduk intervenes on time. Sarah, Abraam’s wife and Yishak’s mother, dies.
1983 BC – Yishak marries Ribqa, the daughter of his cousin, Betu’el.
1963 BC – The twins Esaw and Ya’aqob, Yishak’s and Ribqa’s sons, are born.
1948 BC – Abraam dies. Esaw gives Ya’aqob his first-born right.
1923 BC – Esaw marries two Hittite women.
1900 BC – Yishma’el, Abraam’s and Hagar’s son, dies.
1894 BC – Sumu-Abum founds in southern Mesopotamia a small Amorite kingdom that includes Babylon, thus establishing the first Babylonian Amorite Dynasty.
1881 BC – Sumu-Abum dies and Sumu-la-El gets the throne of the Amorite kingdom.
1878 BC – Pharaoh Khaikheperre Senusret of the 12th Dynasty dies at Itjtawy and his son, Khakaure Senusret, receive the throne of Egypt.
1872 BC – Yosep, Ya’aqob’s and Rahel’s son, is born. Ya’aqob decides to return to Canaan with his family.
1860 BC – Nimaatre Amenemhat, Khakaure Senusret’s son, becomes coregent of Egypt with his father.
1855 BC – Yosep is sold by his brothers and taken to Egypt.
1845 BC – Sumu-la-El dies and his son, Sabium, receive the throne of the Mesopotamian Amorite kingdom.
1843 BC – Yishaq, Abraam’s and Sarra’s son, dies.
1842 BC – Yosep becomes the visier of Egypt. The seven years of well-being starts.
1839 BC – Khakaure Senusret dies in Itjtawy and his son, Nimaatre Amenemhat, remain the only king of Egypt.
1835 BC – Seven years of famine begin in Egypt and Canaan.
1833 BC – Ya’aqob and his family move to Egypt.
1831 BC – Sabium dies and his son, Apil-Sin, receive the throne of the Mesopotamian Amorite kingdom.
1816 BC – Ya’aqob, Yishak’s and Ribqa’s son, dies in Egypt.
1815 BC – Maakherure Amenemhat, Nimaatre Amenemhat’s son, becomes coregent of Egypt with his father.
1814 BC – Nimaatre Amenemhat dies in Itjtawy and his son, Maakherure Amenemhat, remain the only king of Egypt.
1813 BC – Apil-Sin dies and his son, Sin-Muballit, receive the throne of the Mesopotamian Amorite kingdom.
1806 BC – Maakherure Amenemhat dies in Itjtawy and his sister, Sobek-kare Sobekneferu, became the queen of Egypt.
1805 BC – Sekhaenre Yakbim, one of the Ya’aqob’s descendants, crown himself in Avaris of the Nile Delta, becoming the founder of the 14th Dynasty.
1802 BC – Queen Sobek-kare Sobekneferu dies in Itjtawy. Sekhemre Khutawy Amenemhat Sobekhotep gets the throne of Egypt, becoming the founder of the 13th Dynasty, and moves the capital to Inbu-Hedj (Memphis).
1794 BC – Sin-Muballit abdicates and his son, Ammurapi, receive the throne of the Mesopotamian Amorite kingdom, wich he turns into the Babylonian Empire with the capital at Babylon, as the god Marduk commanded.
1780 BC – Sekhaenre Yakbim dies and Nubwoserre Ya’ammu gets the throne of Avaris.
1770 BC – Nubwoserre Ya’ammu dies and Khawoserre Qareh receive the throne of Avaris.
1762 BC – Visier Yosep, Ya’aqob’s and Rahel’s son, dies in Egypt.