The Greeks believed that the Pelasgians were the first people in the world, emerging before the Deluge. What was their place of origin? Where were the survivors of the Deluge taken to live alongside the gods? And what happened to the Pelasgians? Do they still exist today or have they disappeared? What is their history, brutally eliminated from the official one?
In Prehistoric Dacia, published in 1913, Romanian ethnologist Nicolae Densusianu wrote that the Greeks „had a tradition that before they inhabited the land, other people ruled over it, who drained the swamps, dried up the lakes, made new river beds, cut through mountains, connected seas, plowed the plains, founded cities, villages and citadels, had an uplifting religion, built altars and temples for the gods, and these were the Pelasgians„. Furthermore, „even before the immigration of the Greeks, Celts and Germans to the lands of Europe, most of this continent was inhabited by a race of people who came from Asia, whom Greek authors generally called Pelasgians and Turseni. These Pelasgians formed, in pre-Hellenic times, the most extensive, powerful and remarkable nation, a nation that, from a moral and material point of view, changed the face of archaic Europe. The Pelasgians appear to us at the head of all historical traditions, not only in Greece and Italy, but also in the regions north of the Danube and the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, Assyria and Egypt. They represent the original type of the so-called Aryan peoples, which introduced the first benefits of civilization into Europe. We can still find traces of their ethnographic expansion, as well as their industrial activity, on the three continents of the ancient world; from the mountains of Norway to the Sahara deserts, from the sources of the Araxe and Oxus rivers to the Atlantic Ocean„.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus claimed that the Pelasgians received their name from Pelasgus (Pelasgos in Ancient Greek), the son of Zeus and Niobe. Something similar was claimed by Aeschylus in The Suppliants, where he attributed the following words to Pelasgus: „I am Pelasgus, son of Palaichthon, born of Gaia, lord of this land, and after me, its king, the Pelasgian people rightfully takes its name, ruling this land„. In ancient Greek literature, only god Ares had the epithet „Palaichthon„, called „Geticus” by Latin poets, being the protector of the Getae fields. For Homer, the Pelasgian leaders allied with the Trojans are descendants of Ares. According to geographer Pausanias, the Arcadians recounted that the first man on Earth was Pelasgus, who distinguished himself from all other mortals by his strength, beauty and „faculties of his spirit„. He taught people how to build houses to protect themselves from the cold, how to make clothes from sheepskins and forbade them from eating harmful plants. Seven centuries BC, Greek poet Asius of Samos wrote that Pelasgus, „the one like the gods„, was born „in the black land, on the high peaks of the mountains„. Where was the „black land” where Pelasgus was born? This epithet applied to the region undoubtedly refers to the color of the soil, which can only be chernozem, the soil with the darkest color and high natural fertility. There are only two so-called „chernozem belts” in the world: one in the Canadian prairie and the other starting from eastern Croatia, along the Danube (including northern Serbia and Bulgaria and southern Romania), continuing into the Republic of Moldova, northeastern Ukraine and the southern part of Russia, up to Siberia. As we have no reason to believe that the first humans emerged in Canada, which is part of the „New World”, their birthplace should be sought in the second region. In the article Anthropogenesis or the Origin and Evolution of the Human Species, published in the September 1989 issue of the Science and Technology Romanian magazine, Lucian Ganula wrote: „From the Pannonian-Carpathian-Danubian Basin, the primordial European human reservoir that must be taken into account in modern studies, proto-Paleolithics scattered into Western and Northern Europe, and to the east, through the north of the Caspian Sea and Central Asia, the Iranian plateau and the Indian subcontinent„. These Pelasgians, who spread not only in Europe, but also in a large part of Asia and northern Africa, can only be the Thracians, who in Antiquity lived exactly in those regions. Greek geographer Pausanias, who in 174 AD wrote about the Dacian era under the leadership of Dromichaites, stated: „Apart from the Celts, no nation is as numerous and extensive as the Thracians. They were never completely subjugated before being defeated by the Romans„. Similarly, Herodotus, considered the father of history, declared: „The Thracian people is the most numerous in the world after the Indian one. If they had a single ruler or if the Thracians agreed among themselves, they would be invincible and much stronger than all nations, in my opinion. But this is impossible and it will never be accomplished. Therefore, they are weak. The Thracians have several names according to regions, but the customs are the same for all, except for the Getae, the Trausi, and those who live north of Crestomai„.
In Secret Dacia, Romanian ethnographer Adrian Bucurescu considers that the name of the Thracians comes from „traeki” („good, beautiful, pleasant”) and „thrakios” („daring”). In The Great Enigmas, Romanian Eugen Delcea believes that the name comes from Trakia, where „t” is the father, „ra” is the supreme god of the Egyptians and „kia” is Gaia of the Greeks. Regardless of the nature of their name, it is certain that the Thracians occupied most of the Earth’s surface. Although divided into many tribes with diverse names, as confirmed by Herodotus who wrote that „the Thracians have many names according to their regions„, they were all called Thracians except for those in the territory between the Black Sea, the Balkan Mountains, the Tisza and the Dniester rivers, broadly in the area of present-day Romania. The Thracians in these lands were called Dacians or Getae. Over two millennia ago, Greek historian and geographer Strabo wrote in his Geographica that „the Dacians have the same language as the Getae” and „the Greeks considered the Getae to be of Thracian origin„, while Herodotus called the Getae „the bravest and most just of the Thracians„. Therefore, the Dacians or Getae were part of the Thracian people. Another name given to the Getae-Dacians was that of Scythians. For example, from the remaining fragments of Crito’s Getica, it seems that he called „Getae” the opponents of Emperor Traianus, but when he referred to their country, he called it Scythia. The name Getia for the land of the Getae-Dacians was not used in ancient sources, being preferred Scythia or Dacia. Roman poet Valerius Flaccus wrote in the first century AD that the tribes of Scythia were: Sauromatae, Alans, Heniochi, Bisaltae, Cimmerians, Dandars, Hyrcanians, Coralli, Sindi, Bastarnae, Drangiana, Neuri, Iazyges, Arimaspi, Thyrsagetes, Choatres, Getae, Albanians and Geloni. In Prehistoric Dacia Nicolae Densusianu demonstrated that the Scythians were Pelasgians and their name meant „shield-bearers” („scutași” in Romanian) in the Pelasgian military organization (letter „u” was transformed into „y„). For writer Eugen Delcea, the name „Getae” comes from „Geea Tara / Terra” („the Land of Gaia”), which was simplified to „geta„. Nicolae Densusianu believed that the name given by the Greeks, „Getae„, meant „landowners” or „from the country”. The same can be inferred from the name „Dacians” („daci” in Romanian) which comes from „d’aci„, the archaic form of the Romanian expression „de aici” („from here”), meaning that the Getae-Dacians did not consider themselves as having migrated from somewhere, but as a people born on their territory.
Could the Dacians be the Pelasgians that the Greeks talked about, and their country – the birthplace of mankind? Historian Herodotus tells us that „the Pelasgians were the first inhabitants of Greece and Italy, belonging to the European race„, specifying that most of them lived in the north of the Black Sea and the Danube River, on the land of the Dacians. In Prehistoric Dacia, Nicolae Densusianu stated, referring to Dacia: „Roman legends tell us that the inhabitants of this country are a new kind of people that emerged on Earth after the destruction of the first race of men by the Deluge„. The Geto-Dacians were presented in Antiquity, including by the ancient Chinese, as tall and blonde, identical to the physical appearance of the Pelasgians. In addition, it has been noticed that, for the ancients, the Pelasgians were born „in the black land, on the mountains with high peaks„, a territory located on the black soil belt that begins in eastern Croatia, continues along the Danube towards the Republic of Moldova, northeastern Ukraine and the southern part of Russia, and ends in Siberia. Dacia, or present-day Romania, was also located in this area. In the Middle Ages, the epithet „black” was applied to the three major regions of ancient Dacia: Wallachia / The Romanian Land, Transylvania / Ardeal and Moldavia. During the reign of King Stephen over Hungary (997 – 1038), Transylvania is called in a text „Ungria Nigra” („Black Hungary”). In the 1303 chronicle of Fazel-ullach-Rashid, the Romanians in the southern Carpathians are called „Kara-Ulaghi„, which means „Black Wallachians”. The epithet „kara” („dark, black”), applied to the Daco-Romanian countries, is also found in other documents, with the Turks often calling Wallachia „Kara-Iflak” and Moldavia „Kara-Bogdan„, while in the epic poems of the southern Slavs, Wallachia is „Zemija karablaska„. In Prehistoric Dacia, Nicolae Densusianu wrote that the Pelasgians were called „belasci” or „balasci„, names that were modified over time to become „blasci„, „blaci” and „vlahi” (with the letter „b” transforming into „v„), a name that was also adopted in English as the word „black„. Therefore, the southern part of Dacia was called Wallachia (Valahia in Romanian), meaning „The Black Land”. On the other side of the Danube, at the border with Romania, in the town of Lepenski Vir in Serbia, located near the Iron Gates gorge, the oldest human settlement in Europe was discovered, with a history of over seven millennia. In the eastern Wallachia we have the Baragan Plain, known for its black, highly fertile soil, which was long known as „the Granary of Europe” due to its extremely rich crops of cereals, fodder, edible and industrial plants. Just a few kilometers from the Baragan, in Dobrogea there is the Adamclisi village, the Romanian form of the Turkish name Adam Kilisse, which means „Church of Adam”, a name that brings to mind the emergence of the first man, whether we call him Pelasgus or Adam. Also, less than 70 kilometers from Adamclisi, to the east, lies the Black Sea, the largest low-salinity water basin in the world.
Not surprisingly, many archaeological discoveries prove that the first civilization of the world lived on the territory of present-day Romania. The most substantial is the Cucuteni culture, named after the village near the city of Iasi, where the first vestiges were discovered in 1884. In 1897, traces of the Cucuteni civilization were also found in Ukraine, near Kiev, where it was called Trypilia, deliberately ignoring the fact that it was the civilization discovered 13 years earlier in Romania. However, the scientific world has now recognized this culture as the first civilization of Europe, with Western scholars declaring themselves fascinated by the complexity and attributes of the ancient Cucuteni culture. Considering that it preceded by several hundred years all human settlements in Sumer and Egypt, we can say that it is not just the first civilization of Europe, but of the world. The Cucuteni culture stretched over an area of 35,000 square kilometers, in present-day Romania (in Moldavia and southeastern Transylvania), Republic of Moldova (or Bessarabia) and Ukraine. According to discoveries, the people of the Cucuteni culture were the first organized in large settlements, these proto-cities being made of buildings arranged in concentric circles. Their high-quality pottery, painted in a varied and rich manner, is unique in Europe, with some similarities only found in the pottery of a Neolithic culture in China, newer by about a millennium. The predominant colors of Cucuteni ceramics are red, white and black, with some variations depending on the temperature the pots were fired. In terms of shape, the objects range from simple cups to large amphoras. Specialists speak of a cult of the mother goddess (Gaia of the Greeks, from which the Pelasgians were born, or Sophia of the Gnostics), the evidence being the anthropomorphic statues discovered, which do not have grotesque or furious features, unlike those of other more recent cultures. The rare male statues have faces covered by masks, while the female ones are graceful, with long and slender legs, without masks and with tattoos on their bodies. There are no statues of chained slaves or sacrificed humans which, according to historians, is a clear sign of an egalitarian and pacifist civilization. Also, traces of solar cults have been discovered among the Cucuteni population, especially highlighted through painting. „In-depth knowledge of this culture is very important (…) We are proud that the most important and advanced Neolithic culture in the world appeared here„, said Romeo Dumitrescu, president of the Cucuteni for the Third Millennium foundation. Also, historian and archaeologist Emil Condurachi, member of the Romanian Academy in 1955, stated: „On Romanian territory, at the beginning of the fourth millennium BC, one of the most brilliant European civilizations was crystallized, known as the Cucuteni painted pottery culture. Through this culture, the people of our land can be considered to have reached the highest technical and cultural level of that era in Europe„. Later it was discovered that the Cucuteni civilization did not emerged in the 4th millennium BC, but in the middle of the 6th millennium BC!
Between October 2009 and April 2010, The Lost World of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000 – 3500 BC exhibition was organized at the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World at New York University. For the first time in the United States, over 250 artifacts from museums in Romania, Bulgaria and Moldova were exhibited. The director of the institute, Roger Shaler Bagnall, confessed that, until that moment, „many archaeologists had not heard of these ancient cultures of Europe„. Admiring the multicolored pottery, Dr. Bagnall, an expert in Egyptian archaeology, noted that during that period (5000 – 3500 BC), „the Egyptians certainly did not make such pottery„. The exhibition curator, David W. Anthony, stated that in the middle of the 5th millennium BC, „Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced places in the world„, developing „many of the political, technological, and ideological signs of civilization„. Journalist John Noble Wilford, a two-time Pulitzer Prize winner (in 1984 and 1987), wrote an article titled A Lost European Culture, Pulled from Obscurity in The New York Times on 30th November 2009, in which he stated: „Before the glory that was Greece and Rome, even before the first cities of Mesopotamia or temples along the Nile, there lived in the Lower Danube Valley and the Balkan foothills people who were ahead of their time in art, technology and long-distance trade. For 1,500 years, starting earlier than 5000 B.C., they farmed and built sizable towns, a few with as many as 2,000 dwellings. They mastered large-scale copper smelting, the new technology of the age. Their graves held an impressive array of exquisite headdresses and necklaces and, in one cemetery, the earliest major assemblage of gold artifacts to be found anywhere in the world. (…) Over a wide area of what is now Bulgaria and Romania, the people settled into villages of single- and multiroom houses crowded inside palisades. The houses, some with two stories, were framed in wood with clay-plaster walls and beaten-earth floors. For some reason, the people liked making fired clay models of multilevel dwellings, examples of which are exhibited„.
Iosif Constantin-Dragan, former president of the European Marketing Association, declared that „the first civilization of Europe was not the Greek one, because long before it there was another civilization born in the Danube Valley, between the Carpathians and the Haemus Mountains, which flourished during the Bronze Age. It is now known that it emerged even during the Golden and Bronze ages, in the Neolithic period„. And the archaeological evidence showed up promptly in support of this hypothesis. In addition to the oldest underground dwelling in the world, on the territory of the ancient Dacians were found the oldest harpoon and the oldest two-groove lance tip (bayonet type), 20 millennia old, but also the oldest miner’s pickaxe. Here was also discovered the oldest mining activity, the silver mines in Romania being among the oldest in the world. Between 10,000 and 6,000 BC the first furnaces in the world emerged in Dacia, in the Titan-Calan-Nadrag, Reșița, Anina, Baia de Arama, Baia de Fier, Baia Sprie area. The first activity in copper metallurgy took place in 8,000 BC. Archaeologist Vasile Boroneant even stated: „8,000 years ago, our ancestors knew the principle of reducing some ores„. The first bow and the first ax in the world were created in 6,000 BC, discovered in the Raii Valley from Ramnicu Valcea. The Dacians had the most accurate calendar in history, very close to that of NASA, and exact predictions of eclipses for 4,000 years. From the Dacians we have 200 nails with an iron purity of 99.97%, which still do not rust after two millennia. A surgical kit and the trepanned skull of a person who lived on were found at Sarmizegetusa Regia. At Gumelnita, some clay figurines from 4,000 BC represent round tables, high-backed chairs and armchairs. At the Blidaru fortress, Dacian concrete was discovered, which, for scientists, is a „metallic soup” made of titanium, nickel, silver, copper, vanadium, silicon, aluminum and sodium, and the binder is not calcium, but a silicon compound. In Cornesti, a village located less than 20 kilometers from Timisoara city, there is the largest ancient fortress of Europe. Germany offered 300,000 euros for research on the site, which covers an area of 1,800 hectares, the fortress being made up of four concentric rings. One of the archaeologists, German Professor Bernard Heeb, declared: „I believe that the Cornesti site will stand alongside the great sites in Europe like Stonehenge or Sarmizegetusa. In my opinion, it is one of the most important sites in all of Europe, it is the largest prehistoric settlement that we know of and, on the other hand, it is an absolutely fantastic structure„.
In issue 162 from 1988 of the Us Thracians magazine, Professor Stern from Odessa wrote: „The origin of painting must be sought in the area of the spread of the Thracians, in the Tripolie Petreni-Cucuteni culture (…) its movement from north to south was achieved by the displacement of the Thracians„. Ten years earlier, in a cave at Cuciulat, on the banks of the Somes River, the silhouette of a horse was discovered, painted on the cornice of a room’s ceiling. The first and last exploration of the Cuciulat cave took place in 1979. Archaeologist Ioan Bejinariu said that the silhouette of the horse is not the only drawing discovered in the cave; on the walls of the gallery, other painted silhouettes can also be seen: „A human silhouette, a silhouette of a feline, and in a niche there is also the silhouette of a bird, and there are also other colored spots on the walls without a very clear outline„. Specialists claim that the Cuciulat cave is unique in Europe, comparable to the famous caves of Altamira (Spain), Lascaux, Rouffignac and Chauvet (France). It has been attributed an age of over 10,000 years, although some believe that the rock paintings may be much older. In 2010 it was proven that Professor Stern was right when a team of Romanian speleologists discovered 14 prehistoric animal drawings in the Coliboaia cave. Since the Chauvet cave in France held the record until then, a few French speleologists immediately arrived at Coliboaia to study the discovery, having no choice but to confirm the authenticity of the rock paintings. They are over 35,000 years old and the drawings were made by „the oldest European culture„, as UNESCO specialist Jean Clottes said.
In Prehistoric Dacia, Nicolae Densusianu wrote: „Here, in the Lower Danube area and especially in the lands of Dacia – the fact is certain – the great and powerful center of the Neolithic population of Europe was formed and consolidated„. It has even been proven that the oldest hominid in Europe lived on Romanian territory. In 1962, Constantin S. Nicolaescu-Plopsor discovered the hominid in the village of Bugiulesti from the Tetoiu commune, Valcea county, in a place called Graunceanu’s Valley. The hominid, 1.9 million years old, was named Australoantropus Olteniensis. The oldest Homo sapiens in Europe also lived on Romanian territory, being discovered in 2002 in a cave in the Anina Mountains by a group of speleologists from Timisoara. Named Ion, the first Homo sapiens is 40,000 years old. In the same cave, the fossils of other Homo sapiens, named Maria and Vasile, were found, being 14 millennia younger than Ion.
Although Sumerian civilization is still considered the oldest in the world, closely followed by Egyptian and Indian civilization, archaeological discoveries prove that the first was that of the Dacians. Although he did not entirely agree with Nicolae Densusianu’s opinions on the Daco-Pelasgians, historian, archaeologist, epigraphist and essayist Vasile Parvan, member of the Romanian Academy since 1913, was forced to acknowledge that „indeed, Dacia and, in general, the Illyrian-Thracian regions are the cradle of pre and protohistoric civilization. The origins of the Italians, Greeks, and Asians, from the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, should be carefully sought in the Danubian region of Europe. It is a known viewpoint, but not yet sufficiently recognized by everyone (…) the Getae were the inhabitants of Troy between 1000 – 700 BC„. Only in 1961 was it proven that he was right, just like Nicolae Densusianu and other history researchers, when the most important and controversial archaeological evidence was discovered. In Transylvania, specifically in the village of Tartaria in Alba County, researcher Nicolae Vlassa found three clay tablets containing an unknown script, similar to that of the Sumerians. After prolonged research it was established that the tablets from Tartaria were inscribed around 5,500 BC, being 1500 years older than the Sumerian ones. Somewhat similar tablets were found in Karanovo and Gradesnita in Bulgaria, but they correspond to the 3rd millennium BC. Bulgarian academician Vladimir I. Ghorghiev declared that „in Tartaria, Romania, we are dealing with the oldest writing in the world„, an initially sharply criticized hypothesis by the global archaeological community. For example, Adam Falkenstein, an archaeologist from Frankfurt am Main, argued in the 1960s that the tablets from Tartaria were a result of the influence of Sumerian civilization, if not even derived from Sumer. Later, he recognized their indigenous origin but also that they represented the first evidence of writing in human history. In The History of Clocks, Polish astronomer Dr. Ludwig Zeidler noted: „The Sumerian calendar was not created in Mesopotamia, but in an area located much further north, towards the Black Sea, and at this latitude, i.e. the north of the Black Sea, Tartaria and Lepenski Vir are situated„.
Regarding the Dacian alphabet, which had 150 characters, Flemish humanist Bonaventura Vulcannius from Bruges wrote in 1597: „The Getae had their own alphabet long before the Latin one emerged (…) accompanied by the flute, the Getae sang the deeds of their heroes, composing songs even before the founding of Rome, which – as Cato writes – the Romans began to do much later„. In 1687, Carolus Lundius, adviser to the king of Sweden, stated in Zamolxis, Primus Getarum Legislator („Zamolxis, First Legislator of the Getae”): „Let it be clear to everyone that those whom Antiquity named with a chosen veneration Getae, the writers later called them unanimously Goths (…) the Greeks and other peoples took the letters from the Getae. In Herodotus and Diodorus, we find direct opinions about the spread of these letters„. The Dacian alphabet doesn’t only come from the tablets found at Tartaria, but also from the Rohonczi Codex, an ancient manuscript over a millennium old, currently preserved in Budapest (written in archaic Romanian with Dacian characters, from right to left, which are read from bottom to top), and from the lead plates discovered in Sinaia, written in the same language and with the same Dacian characters.
Not only the Dacian script was the first in the world, but also their language. From ancient inscriptions we know that the Dacians called their language Oro Manisa or Drago Manisa, both phrases meaning „The Pure Language” or „The Divine Speech”. The texts suggest that Oro Manisa was the language spoken by the gods, thus explaining the name „Divine Speech”. The grammar of this language presents numerous irregularities, which characterize very old and conservative languages. It is currently believed that this language has disappeared, being partially preserved in Romanian and Albanian.
According to the official version, the Romanian language is an Indo-European language, which is part of the Italic group and the Eastern subgroup of the Romance languages. It is believed that it was formed by mixing the Dacian language with Latin after the Roman conquest of Dacia in 106 AD, with Dacian influence being limited to approximately 300 words. Moreover, the Romanian people would have formed from the mixture of Roman soldiers with Dacian women in just 169 years. However, this official version, which has been forced upon us for too long, has many gaps, even embarrassing ones at times:
– Trajan’s Romans only conquered 14% of Dacia’s territory. Even if they had implemented their language in the conquered territory, it would mean that 14% of Dacians spoke a mixture of Latin and Dacian, while 86% of Dacians would have kept their own language, Oro Manisa. This cannot be possible, since Romanians from the former Dacia territory speak one and the same language.
– The Roman soldiers who came to Dacia were not fluent in Latin. From Constantin C. Giurescu’s History of the Romanians (1942) we learn that the army stationed on Dacian land included soldiers from different parts of the Roman Empire, some even very distant. There were Britons from present-day United Kingdom, Asturians and Lusitanians from the Iberian Peninsula, Bosporans from the northern Black Sea, Antiochenes from the regions of Antioch, Ubi and Batavians from the Rhine, Gauls from France, Raeti from Austria and southern Germany, Commagenians from Syria and even Numidians and Moors from northern Africa. These soldiers, who represented the majority of the Roman army, spoke any language other than Latin. They did not even know a phrase in the language of the Romans, so they could not have taught the Dacians the Latin language, which officially gave rise to the Romanian language. To provide an explanation for these irregularities, in 1999, in New York, Professor Dr. Ioan Piso, an archaeologist from Cluj, declared that the Dacians learned Latin from the Romans in Trajan’s Sarmizegetusa public baths. Why would they have learn it in Roman baths and from some naked soldiers? To satisfy Mr. Piso’s potential erotic fantasies?
– Even if we ignore the fact that 86% of the Dacians never met a Roman and the remaining 14% mostly encountered soldiers of other nationalities, it is still not possible for the Romanian language and people to have formed in just 169 years. Nowhere in the world, regardless of the conquered province, did the Romans create new languages and peoples by mixing with the locals. But we are expected to believe that this happened in Dacia, where Roman soldiers had sex with Dacian women, thus giving birth to entire generations of children who only learned Latin from their fathers. The mothers were probably mute, unable to teach their ancestral language inherited from the gods. We do not know why women would have traveled hundreds of kilometers from the farthest territories of Dacia to be impregnated by Roman soldiers. But we are supposed to imagine that the Roman army had a legion of don juans, necessarily Romans (not from other parts of the empire, in order to succeed in teaching their children Latin), whose only job was to impregnate all the local women they encountered. Being more virile than erotic film actors, they impressed Dacian women so much that they spread the word throughout the country, and representatives of the fairer sex came willingly to check the performance of those „Latino lovers” stuffed with Viagra. The Dacians did not seem bothered by their women’s mating with Cassanova’s ancestors, themselves testing the Romans’ virility in the baths of Sarmizegetusa Regia. During the sexual acts in the baths, the group of gigolos always made sure to teach Latin to the Dacians, and during breaks to their own children, resulted from orgies with Dacian women (whom they probably also cut their tongues off so they wouldn’t dare to spoil the education of their offspring with „barbaric” words). And this is the biggest possible nonsense that any historian could declare.
– The Dacians could not under any circumstances accept the replacement of their language with Latin or mixing with the Romans. History records that they never accepted Roman rule. In the years 117, 138, 140, 143, 156 – 157, 159, 167 and 180 AD, violent rebellions took place in Roman Dacia, coordinated with attacks by free Dacians from the unoccupied provinces. Almost the entire 19-year reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius was marked by constant fights with the rebellious Dacians. Emperor Commodus fought three wars against the free Dacians in 180, 183 and 184. Similarly, Caracalla fought in 217 – 218 (as noted by Dio Cassius) and Gordian I in 238 and 242. Emperors Claudius Gothicus and Gallienus were also in conflict with the Dacians. During the reign of Valerian, the Carpi tribe attacked the south of the Danube, subdued Colchis in 256 and occupied Trebizond in 257 – 258. Then they crossed the Bosphorus and liberated the cities of Chalcedon, Nicaea, Apamea and Nicomedia on the coast of Asia Minor. In 245, under pressure from the Carpi Dacians, Emperor Philip the Arab was forced to abandon the Transalutanian border forever. In 258, King Regalianus, a successor of Decebalus (the last official king of Dacia), liberated Dacia and the Roman Emperor Gallienus had no choice but to accept the autonomy of the country. The Romans returned after the death of Regalianus in 268, but three years later, Emperor Marcus Aurelius decided on a final withdrawal of troops from Dacia due to repeated attacks by the free Dacians. Therefore, under no circumstances could the Romanization of the Dacians be achieved in an area in a permanent state of conflict, as Greek orator Aelius Aristides reminded Rome in his speech in 144 AD when he referred to „the madness of the Getae„.
„The Dacians had a very distinct language of their own, which they completely abandoned and replaced with that of the Romans, which cannot be counted or believed„, exclaimed the Camaicam (regent) of Wallachia, Constantin Cantacuzino, in the 17th century. If the Dacians did not learn Latin from Roman soldiers, then from where? Nicolae Densusianu wrote that when „the Romans conquered the Dacians at Sarmizegetusa under Trajan, they did not need interpreters„. Roman senator and historian Dio Cassius also wrote: „Let us not forget that Trajan was a true Thracian. The battles between Trajan and Decebalus were fratricidal wars, and the Thracians were Dacians„. Therefore, the Dacians and the Romans spoke the same language. However, the Dacians did not learn Latin before encountering the Romans, but rather Latin originates from the Dacian language, Oro Manisa, which was learned from the gods. The same thing was asserted in December 2012 by Miceal Ledwith, former advisor to Pope John Paul II, in an interview with the TVR Cluj television station. Ledwith, a former member of the International Theological Commission, who had access to the archives of the Vatican Library, made a shocking statement: „Although it is known that Latin is the official language of the Catholic Church, as well as the language of the Roman Empire, and Romanian is a Latin language, fewer people know that Romanian, or its precursor, comes from the place from which the Latin language derives, and not vice versa. In other words, Romanian is not a Latin language, but rather Latin is a Romanian language. Therefore, I want to greet the people from the Bucegi Mountains, from Brasov, from Bucharest. You are the ones who have offered a wonderful vehicle to the Western world (i.e. the Latin language)”. Like Densusianu a century before, Ledwith also said that, at their meeting with the Romans, the Dacians did not need translators because they already spoke the language from which Latin was formed. In this light, Romanians appear as one and the same people as the Dacians, their direct and legitimate continuators, while the Romans appear as a Thracian people. Additionally, during his visit to Romania in 1999, Pope John Paul II called this country „the Garden of the Mother of God„, which indicates that the Vatican knows that the country of the Dacians / Romanians is the place where the old gods lived. Nearly 33 years before the confession of Irishman Miceal Ledwith, Iordache Moldoveanu wrote in Flacara magazine on 24th January 1980: „The Romanian language, in a specific primitive stage, has been spoken since early Neolithic times in the Carpathians and the Danube Valley. We prove, based on inscriptions, that in the Bronze Age, our ancestors wrote the alphabet and spoke an archaic Romanian language, proto-Latin. This was when Rome did not even exist„. In 1942, novelist Ioan Alexandru Bratescu-Voinesti stated: „No language of the Dacians has been lost, because they did not have another language of their own that would be replaced by the language of the Romans, and they did not have such a language for the simple reason that the Dacians spoke Latin. The Dacian language has not disappeared. It first became the language of the Romans in Italy, which was a literary form of the Dacian language, and later became the Italian language; the same language of the Dacians, brought to France, first became the language of the Gauls and eventually the French language; in Spain, it first became the language of the Iberians, and with time, the Spanish language, and here it became our Romanian language over time„. In Memoriam on the Old and Current State of Moldavia from the 18th century, French Count d’Hauterive wrote: „Latin, far from being the trunk of the languages spoken today, could be said to be less in the nature of the first Roman nature, that it has changed more its first words and if I did not fear to give a paradoxical appearance to this just observation, I would say that it is the newest of all, or at least it is the one in whose parts there are fewer traces of the language of the peoples from which it was born. The Latin language truly derives from this language, and the other languages, especially Moldovan, are this very language„. An additional argument for the direct inheritance from Oro Manisa is the irregular grammar of the Romanian language. The vocabulary and grammar of the texts from Sinaia lead plates indicate a profound relationship with the Indo-European languages, in reality deriving from Oro Manisa. In 1936, in the third volume of the History of the World, Frenchman Louis de la Vallé Poussin said that the lands north of the Lower Danube „can be considered as places of origin of the Indo-European languages„, while the inhabitants are „the ancestors of humanity„. Swedish writer and linguist Ekstrom Par Olof announced in 1976 that „the Romanian language is a key language, which has greatly influenced all the languages of Europe„. As early as 1862, French diplomat Félix Colson noted in Nationalité et régenération des paysans moldo-valaques („Nationality and Regeneration of Moldo-Wallachian Peasants”) that the Dacians were of Pelasgian origin and their language was only an idiom of the common Pelasgian language before the foundation of Rome. „What dialect was spoken by the Vlachs (i.e. the Wallachians)? Philologists considered it to be imported from the conquering Romans. This is just an assertion. The Vlach language is that of the Pelasgians, which has been formed for thirty centuries. It was spoken in the Pindus Mountains more than a hundred years before its conquest by Trajan’s soldiers (…) In Peonia, Pelasgonia, Upper Macedonia, which Aeschylus calls Pelasgia, in the cantons of Epirus and Thessaly, occupied by the Pelasgians, the Vlach dialect was not borrowed from the rulers of the world. On the contrary, the Romans spoke the language of the Pelasgians (…) It is clear that the descendants of the Pelasgians, who number several hundred thousand and live in the mountains that were the cradle of their ancient race, and who populate the former Dacia, still speak the national language, which in Italy gave rise to the Latin language (…) We can no longer doubt that the Pelasgic nations were not the Latin people. Everything concurs to prove that their dialect became the Latin language. It is indisputable that the Pelasgians contributed to the foundation of Rome (…) The Vlach dialect pre-exists. Immediately after the Roman conquest, it spontaneously revealed itself in Dacia, Pannonia and on the Pindus (…) History had to record the story of colonies that brought the Latin language to Dacia. For this purpose, writers invented the bloody story of Dacian nation’s extermination by Trajan„, wrote Colson.
„A mitochondrial Eve from Thrace is at the origin of the Romanians. The population here then migrated to all of Europe 30 – 40,000 years ago„, said German professor Alexander Rodewald, director of the Institute of Human Biology at the University of Hamburg. The Pelasgian people, known in Antiquity as Thracians, originating from Pelasgia / Dacia, represent the Indo-Europeans who have spread not only throughout Europe, but also northern Africa and southern Asia, as far as India and China. German researcher Bosch Gimpera said of the space from which the Indo-Europeans originated that „it is located between the Danube Valley, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea„. Writer Eugen Delcea argues that the name „Ionians„, given to the Pelasgians by the Greeks, came from their quality as „sons of the sun-god„, whose head was on Omu Peak, called Kogaionon in ancient times, although it is possible that they received their name from their leader, Ion still being the most common name among Romanians today. In India and Persia the Pelasgians appear as Aryans, having a language similar to that of the Dacians. In the Near East they are the Sumerians and Hittites. Basques and Etruscans have common elements of language, folklore and traditions with the Romanian homeland. Spaniards called themselves „descendants of the Getae and Zalmoxis„. The French, who kept few words from Latin, until the 18th century (excluding large cities) spoke like the Moldavian chronicler Grigore Ureche. In the article Where Was Civilization Born? from the 1975 issue of Reader’s Digest, American archaeologist William Schiller shocked with the statement: „Civilization was born where the Romanian people live today, spreading both east and west, about 13 – 15,000 years ago!„. Romanian researcher Virgil Oghina also said: „The great Pelasgian-Arimic nation has a Carpathian-Atlantic origin since the beginning of the Neolithic. Expanding, this nation – called the European white race – has populated Europe, southern Asia and northern Africa„. The 1920s edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica mentioned the influence of the Daco-Getians in northern China. German archaeologist Klaus Schmith announced that „the bearers of the oldest civilizations of China and Japan immigrated during the Neolithic era, mostly from southeastern Europe, from the region between the Dnieper, the Danube and the Balkans„. Also, English historian Edward Gibbon, a former member of the British parliament, wrote in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776) about the great Pelasgian-Dacian empire: „The annals of China preserve details about the state and movements of pastoral tribes, which can often be distinguished under the vague name of Scythians or Tartars, successively vassals, enemies and conquerors of a great empire (…) From the mouth of the Danube to the Sea of Japan, the longitude of Scythia extends over almost 110 degrees, which included, in this direction, over 1700 settlements. The pastoral tribes of the North managed to conquer China twice„. We can see here a reference to the Tartars, none other than the Dacians from the Tartaria area, where the oldest writing in the world was discovered. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, the founder of the Theosophical Society, also mentioned Tartary / Tartaria in her book Isis Unveiled (1877): „Many of the secret ancient manuscripts can be found in Tartary and India (…) united in the book of Dzyan, which came from the night of times, left to us by an unknown people to ethnologists and written in the Senzar language (…) This language was spoken by the first inhabitants of the Earth„, namely the Pelasgians. Over a century before Helena Blavatsky, Swedish occultist Emanuel Swedenborg claimed that the original „word” of the Bible was to be found in Magna Tartaria. Indeed, the oldest writing in the world was found in Tartaria, which is the origin of all written words.
About 40 kilometers from Tartaria there is the city of Simeria, which was written for a long time as Symeria. As in the Dacian language „y” often became „u„, the name of the Transylvanian city is almost identical to that of the land of the Sumerians. If we also take into account the similarities between the letters on the Tartaria tablets and Sumerian cuneiform writing, the fact that the Sumerians dressed like Romanian peasants and spoke a similar language, it becomes obvious that the Sumerians migrated from Transylvanian Symeria to the Near East in the 4th millennium BC. In the 16th century BC, the Dacian tribe of the Cimmerians appeared in the area of Bessarabia and the Danube Delta, probably originating from the same place as the Sumerians. Some ancient Greek writers believed that the Cimmerians continued to exist under the names of the Treres, Costoboci or Carpi, with geographer and historian Strabo identifying them with the Cimbri. According to geographer Abydenus, one of the Sumerian kings, named Daos, who lived four generations before the Deluge, can be translated as „Dacian”. Romanian writer Paul Lazar Tonciulescu demonstrated that the Sumerian Ensi Gudea of Lagash came from Dacia; Gudea was a common name among the Dacians and Burebista and Decebalus were declared „ansi” („demigods”) by the Dacians, a name that was adopted by the Sumerians, who transformed it into „ensi” – an epithet of their rulers. Also the Gutians, who destroyed the Akkadian Empire, came from the Gutai Mountains in Maramures (a region in northern Romania). Another antediluvian Sumerian king, Enmenluana of Bad-tibira („Wall of the Copper Workers”), can be found in the legends of Buzau, where Luana was the ruler of a fortress with very high walls.
A comparative study of the languages of the Sumerians, Basques and Romanians reveals a multitude of similarities that can only be explained by their common origin in Oro Manisa of the Daco-Pelasgians. The Romanian and Basque languages have 270 phonetic and semantic etymons in common, leading to approximately 2,500 derivatives in the Romanian language. The name of the Romanian city of Deva can be found as a local community in the Basque Country of Spain, near San Sebastian, as a maritime valley 27 kilometers from San Sebastian, as a river and valley in Spain and as a river and valley in the United Kingdom. In Romania there are villages named Bascov, Bascovete, Bascovelu, Bascov and also the word „bască„, which refers to the beret specifically worn by Basques. The Pelasgian origin of the Basques is also proven by the existence of the Pelasgian city of Uxama in the Basque Country, mentioned in a Latin inscription from Lusitania: „Comelia… Uxamesis Argelorum„. In Roman traditions, the founders of Uxama came from eastern Europe. Other Roman traditions refer to the inhabitants of this city as ambirodaci and argeli (names derived from Arges, a river in Southern Romania).
Shortly after the arrival of the Sumerians in Asia, the Aryans, who had white skin like the Sumerians, arrived in India. Their language was called „Sanskrit„, meaning „the writing of the gods”, having a similar meaning to Oro Manisa / Drago Manisa of the Dacians, also translated as „divine language”. In The Secret Writing – Volume II, Professor Tudor Diaconu compiled a small Romanian-Sanskrit dictionary, which shows that the Aryans spoke Romanian, with the two languages having over 1,500 common words and over 1,000 common toponyms and hydronyms. Here are some Sanskrit words and their Romanian equivalent:
– „ambarya” = to collect, to gather; from which the Romanian word „hambar” („barn”) resulted
– „kodra, kodrava” = poor people’s wheat, from which the expression „codru de pâine” („loaf of bread”) comes from
– „avi-sthala” = „staul” („sheep pen”)
– „palava” = „pleavă” („chaff”)
– „bhukti” = „bucate” („food”)
– „bhukta” = „a îmbuca” („to eat”)
– „sava” = „sevă” („flower sap”)
– „lotra” = prey, loot, from which the word „lotru” resulted, meaning „thief”
– „ud” = „ud” („wet”)
– „pluta” = floating, raft, which floats, which swims, „plută” in Romanian
– „puti” = stinking, foul-smelling, „a puți” in Romanian
– „vidhava” = „văduvă” („widow”)
– „nap’at” = „nepoată” („grandaughter”)
– „lalana” = woman, wife, „lele” in Romanian
– „pitar” = father or, loosely translated, the one who brings the bread („pită” in Romanian)
– „tata” = „tată” („father”)
– „yatha” = „iată” („behold”)
– „sarman” = the one who seeks shelter, a poor man, „sărman” in Romanian
– „has” = to laugh, to smile, to make fun of, to ridicule, „haz” in Romanian
– „lubh, lubhita” = to desire, to attract; from which the words „a iubi” („to love”), „iubit” („beloved”), „iubire” („love”) resulted
– „vitsana” = „vițel” („calf”)
– „vatsaka” = „vițică” („heifer”)
– „marmara” = „murmur” („mutter”), „a murmura” („to murmur”)
– „mandra” = pleasant, agreeable, charming, root of the Romanian words „mândru„, „mândră„, „mândruță” („dear, darling, beloved”)
– „raj, reg” = „rege” („king”)
– „su-vega” = to move very quickly, swiftly, rapidly; the root of the word „suveică” („quill, shuttle”) and of the expression „iute ca o suveică” („as fast as a shuttle”)
– „antraya” = interior, inside, root of the Romanian word „intrare” („entry”)
– „ara” = „aramă” („brass, bronze”)
After 20 years of study, Dr. Lucian Cuesdean concluded that 80 million people from the Punjabi community in India currently speak an archaic Romanian language. The two languages have 2,000 identical words, many of which are also common with Latin. Not only that, „there are now officially 20,000 Romanian language speakers in Kazakhstan„, he said in 2010. Dr. Cuesdean started with information related to the great Massagetae tribe, attested in Central Asia by ancient historians and mentioned in Evagrius Scholasticus (written in the 6th century and translated as Ecclesiastical History by E. Walford in 1846), where it was said that „the current Jad population in northern India is descended from the Massagetae. In Pahlavi language, messagetae is translated to Great Jats„. Cuesdean followed the trail of the Great Jats population, whom the Chinese called Yuezhi (Getae), recording their dominance in Punjabi. Thus, he discovered the 80 million Indians who not only speak the language of the Dacians, but also dress almost identically to Romanian peasants.
In The Dacian-Thracian Origin of the Romanian Language from 1936, Marin Barbulescu-Dacu stated: „The language of the Dacians from the Carpathians is identical to that of today’s Indian from the province of Dakka and all of Bengal, that Dhakki language from Dhakka country in the eastern Bengal region, in the first millennium BC, as well as that Daka and Andaka language from India, which ruled India several thousand years before Christ„. In the article Exaggerated History, published in issue 5007 of Curentul magazine on 24th January 1942, Dr. Nicolae Lupu wondered: „When it is proven that the speech of the Romanian peasant is similar to Sanskrit, why do I need to go to Trajan’s soldiers, who will make them forget their language and then learn the Latin (Roman) language, which they did not know well?„. In 1879, Frenchman Clemence Roger declared in Bulletin de la Sociéte d’Anthropologie („Bulletin of the Anthropological Society”) that „all legends, all traditions of the Aryans, historians of Asia confirm that they come from the West… let us seek their common cradle in the Lower Danube, in this Pelasgian Thrace„. The Cambridge History of India from 1922, edited by the University of Cambridge in the UK, also noted: „The journey of the Carpathian Aryans to reach India took them through the north of the Black Sea and the north of the Caspian Sea„. French archaeologist Solomon Reinach came to the same conclusion in L’origine des Aryenes. Histoire d’une controverse („The Origin of the Aryans. History of a Controversy”) from 1892.
In India there was a state called Dahistan, meaning the Land of the Dacians. Traces of the Dacians in that part of Asia can be seen in the village of Dhaka and the city of Dhaka in India, Dhaka or Dacca (the capital of Bangladesh), the village of Sra Dhaka, the city of Ghora Dhaka and the Kala Dhaka region in Pakistan. The Vedic pantheon included the god Daksha, one of Brahma’s sons, and his daughter, the goddess Sati, was also known as Dakshayani. In Vedic mythology there was also Valac-Hilya, a collective deity of wisdom, in which the Vlachs / Wallachians were sacralized by the Indians. In Dacia, the Land of the Gods from 1993, Nicolae Miulescu demonstrated that most Vedic gods’ names can be found in the toponyms of Romania, while Italian professor Fabio Scialpi declared himself „intrigued by the presence, on the territory of Romania, of several toponyms with Sanskrit resonance„. For example, the Sanskrit word for „deity” is „deva„, which is identical to the Transylvanian city Deva, located less than nine kilometers from Simeria, the birthplace of the Sumerians. In Hinduism, Deva also represents a class of benevolent deities, opposed to the demon Asuras, tasked by the major gods with maintaining order. If the Greek poet Homer referred to the Pelasgians as „daoi” („divine”), a name derived from „daci” („Dacians” in English) by replacing the letter „c” with „o„, in the Vedas we encounter the god Dao, the creator of the world. Similarly, the Indian god Krishna has a name very similar to that of the Romanian region of Crișana. Regarding the origin of the Dacians encountered throughout the world, Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe asserted in 1926: „The primitive places (meaning primary) of the Dacians must be sought on Romanian territory. Indeed, the localization of the main center of formation and expansion of the Indo-Europeans must be placed north and south of the Danube„.
The Aryans are not found only in India, but also in Persia. In Dacia, the Land of the Gods, Nicolae Miulescu shows that, of the 12 tribes that left the Carpathian region, two formed the Persian nation, in one of them even the emperor Cyrus the Great, who fell in battle against Queen Tomyris’ Massagetae, had his origin. Many words from old or contemporary Persian, also known as Farsi, can be found in the Romanian language. Here are a few examples:
– „pahsit” = „a păzi” („to guard”)
– „owi” = „oi” („sheep”)
– „ker-wo-s” = „cerb” („stag”)
– „ker” = „corn” („horn”)
– „alpa” = „alb” („white”)
– „gurta” = „curte” („courtyard”)
– „hulana” = „lână” („wool”)
– „tati” = „tată” („father”)
– „margean” = „mărgean” („coral”)
In Persian, the word „ban” means „one who is responsible for”, „one who takes care of”. For example:
– „bagh-ban” = one who guards the orchard
– „negah-ban” = one who guards a property
– „ciub-ban” = one who guards with a wooden stick in his hand, the root of the Romanian word „cioban” („shepherd”)
– „darvaze-ban” = gatekeeper / goalkeeper (of a football team or a building)
In Romania there is the Banat region and the position of great ban (for example, the ban of Craiova), with the same meaning as in Persian, the region’s ban being the one responsible for the respective area. In Iran there is a region called Zarand, „zar” meaning „gold”, and in Romania we encounter the Land of Zarand, an area known since ancient times for being very rich in gold. Among the words common to both languages there are „boccea” (a piece of cloth in which something is wrapped to be transported), „ciorap” („sock”), „colibă” („hut”), „cazma” („spade”), „chibrit” („match”), „ciolac” („crippled”), „catran” („tar”), „caș” („cheese”), „dușman” („enemy”), „fitil” („wick”), „habar” („news”), „hambar” („barn”), „iureș” („race”), „lighean” (a metal or porcelain vessel, used for washing), „mahala” („slum”), „maidan” (empty place located inside or on the edge of a town), „musafir” („guest”), „mușteriu” („client”), „magiun” („jam”), „menghină” („vise”), „neghină” („cockle”), „satâr” („cleaver”), „păstor” („shepherd”), „sidef” („mother-of-pearl”), „sacagiu” (a person who in the past used to carry drinking water to sell it), „topor” („axe”), „tain” („food ration”), „viran” („waste”) and so on. We can conclude that, like in India, the Aryans arrived in Persia from Dacia. German historian Heinrich Jules Klaproth wrote about the Dacian origin of the Parthian Arsacid dynasty in his book Tableaux historiques de l’Asie, depuis la monarchie de Cyrus jusqu’à nos jours, accompagnés de recherches historiques et ethnographiques sur cette partie du monde („Historical Tables of Asia, From the Monarchy of Cyrus to the Present Day, Accompanied by Historical and Ethnographic Research on This Part of the World „) from 1826: „Even though we have to search for the first origin of the Arsacids in Asia, when they conquered this part of the world they came from Europe and were part of a powerful nation spread from the banks of the Danube to the farthest regions of Upper Asia: these people were the Dacians, this was the national name of the Arsacids, which they gave to all their subjects. Three centuries before our era, Hungary and Bactria equally bore the name of Dacia / Dakia and this name, which can easily be recognized at any time, but modified differently in the idioms that have succeeded in Europe and Asia, is even used to designate the Germanic peoples and the descendants of the ancient Persians„.
Where does the name „Aryans” come from? One of the Dacian tribes, mentioned by the Greeks and Romans, was that of the Arimaspians / Arimans / Arimii, who were also called Rami / Ramani / Rumini / Rumoni. In the 8th century BC, Greek poet Homer said in the Iliad that the homeland of the giant Typhon was Arima or the Land of Arimii, and in the Odyssey that this territory was located in the land of the Hyperboreans in the north of the Ister (Danube) River. Armunus was the name of the Arimii’s Zeus, who later became Jupiter Ruminus in the Roman Empire. The Cappadocians called him Zeus Dakin. Mars / Ares, the god of war, was also called Arimanios. In Geography, Claudius Ptolemy mentioned Ramidava („The City of the Rami”), one of the most important cities in southern Dacia. In Orpheus’ Argonautica and Ovid’s Metamorphoses, the city of Romechium is mentioned. The poet Aristeas of Proconnesus, a prophet of the god Apollo, described the Arimaspian Pelasgians as „many and very powerful warriors, rich in herds, flocks and cattle; men with thick hair that waved in the air; the most robust of all men, each having an eye on his beautiful forehead„. The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus called Arimani the Lusitanians and Cantabrians of the Iberian Peninsula. This Dacian tribe of the Arimii / Arimaspian / Arimanians / Ramii / Ramanii is the Aryan population in India and Persia. The Persian god Mithra, found in India under the name Mitra, was always represented with a Dacian cap on his head. His name, Mitru, is Romanian, a diminutive of the name Dumitru. Another god of the Aryans, Angra Mainyu, was also called Ahriman by the Persians, indicating his origin from the Dacian tribe of the Arimanians. His enemy, the supreme god of the Persians, Ahura Mazda, was also called Hurmuz, a Romanian word which, according to the Romanian Language Explanatory Dictionary, means either „glass bead imitating pearl„, or „a string of such beads„, or „ornamental shrub with pink flowers and white cherry-sized berries„. Avesta, the name of the Persians’ sacred scriptures, comes from the name of an ancient queen of the Dacians, Vesta / Istia / Histia / Hestia (the last name being also taken by the Greeks for one of their goddesses). In the Persian Vendidad scriptures, Airyana Vaejo, the original home of the Aryan race, was rich in crops and game, with meadows watered by rivers, having a mild and productive climate. In Dacia, a country watered by numerous rivers and springs, the climate has been temperate, with tropical periods of warming, at least until a few millennia ago. It is known that the southern part of Dacia, Wallachia, is very rich in crops, with the Baragan Plain even being called „the granary of Europe„. From ancient times, a highly varied fauna has been found in Dacia. In the Lower Paleolithic era, giraffes, rhinoceroses and elephants lived in the territory of Dacia, while in the Middle Paleolithic era, horses, wild boars, woolly rhinoceroses and mammoths were present there. The historian Herodotus claimed that „only in these lands lions are born in Europe„. Therefore, we can consider Airyana Vaejo, the home of the Aryan race, to be Dacia, present-day Romania.
From ancient authors, we know that Dacians were white, tall, blonde, mostly bearded, with blue eyes. The epithet „barbarian” comes from the Thracian custom of wearing beards. Traces of white, blonde, blue-eyed people, who can only be Thracians, have been found all over the world. The mummies of the Wari population, a very sophisticated civilization that lived in the Andes Mountains before the Incas, had masks with eyes made of blue stones. Many Sumerian statues depict white people with blue eyes, some even bearded. Statues of blue-eyed people have also been discovered in Egypt. One of them, from predynastic Egypt, six millennia old and made of ivory, depicts a blond woman with white skin and blue eyes made of two lapis lazuli stones. Many mummies with blond, light brown or red hair and Caucasian features have been discovered. In an article in a British anthropological journal, French professor Georges Vacher de Lapouge described a blond-haired mummy discovered in Al Amrah, which had a face and skull size identical to that of the Gauls or Saxons (Thracian peoples). Another blond-haired mummy was found in Kawamil among many others with brown hair. A blond-haired mummy was also discovered in Silsileh (in Egypt). As noted by Dr. Leonard Halford Dudley Buxton in The People of Asia (1925), among the skulls from the city of Thebes in the collection of the Department of Human Anatomy at Oxford University there are specimens of the Norse type. Mummies with red hair have been discovered in the caves of Aboufaida and one from a pyramid in Saqqara had not only red hair, but also a mustache and beard of the same color. A predynastic period mummy, currently at the British Museum in London, of a person who lived two centuries before the first pharaoh, was named Ginger due to her red hair. Also, the History of Egyptian Mummies book mentions a mummy with red hair. Although very few mummies of pharaohs have survived to this day, most have Norse features, with blonde or red hair. Queen Tyie, pharaoh Akhenaten’s mother, had light brown hair, as Tutankhamun’s wife, and was depicted in paintings with pink skin, blue eyes and blond hair. The mummy of pharaoh Tuthmosis II has light brown hair. Pharaoh Ramses II was reddish blonde, tall and had white skin. Queen Hatshepsut had blond hair. In a wooden statue, King Hor has blue eyes. Paintings from the tomb of pharaoh Amenhotep III depict him with light red hair and Caucasian features. Two statues from around 2570 BC, found in tombs at Medum, depict Prince Rahotep and his wife, Nofret; the stones used for his eyes are light blue, while the ones used for hers are blue-violet. In 2011, geneticists from iGENEA in Zurich (a DNA based genealogical research center) discovered that Tutankhamun has a common ancestor with over half of European men. The pharaoh belonged to a specific group of genetic profiles, known as haplogroup Rlbla2, of which 70% of Spaniards, 60% of French and only 1% of Egyptians belong today. „It was very interesting to discover that he (i.e. Tutankhamun) belonged to a genetic group from Europe – there were many other possible groups in Egypt from whose DNA he could have originated„, said Roman Scholz, iGENEA’s director. „We believe that that common ancestor lived in the Caucasus about 9,500 years ago„, Scholz added, acknowledging that he does not know how Tutankhamun’s white ancestors ended up in Egypt.
It is believed that until around 1050 BC, pharaohs had Caucasian features. The term „blue blood” emerged in Egypt because members of royal families could see blue-purple veins through their white skin. Not only the elite was white, but also many ordinary people, as it can be seen from many paintings and statues left behind by the ancient Egyptians, in addition to the discovered mummies. An agricultural scene from the tomb of nobleman Meketre, dating back four millennia, depicts people with red hair. An Egyptian scribe named Kay, who lived in Saqqara around 2,500 BC, had blue eyes. In the tomb of Menna from the XVIII dynasty, in Thebes, several blonde girls and a blonde man are depicted, supervising two black-haired workers. The painting of a blonde man hunting from a chariot can be seen in the tomb of Userhet, the royal scribe of Amenhotep II, and some blonde soldiers are also depicted in the same tomb. Priest Remi’s funerary stela depicts him with red hair. In a tomb from the 18th dynasty, in Thebes, two girls with blonde hair and a boy with red hair were drawn, all three having white skin, mourning their parents who also had white skin, but black hair. Many tombs in Beni Hassan contain paintings of people with red hair and blue eyes. Blonde and red-haired people were depicted in many tombs in Thebes. Paintings from the 3rd dynasty show Egyptians with red hair and blue eyes, workers, masons and shepherds. A blonde woman was depicted in Djeserkaraseneb’s tomb in Thebes. Around 2,500 BC, was painted a boat with a crew of five blonde navigators. Other people with white skin and red hair were depicted in the tomb of Queen Meresankh III in Giza. A man with blonde hair and distinct Caucasian features can be seen in the tomb of Iteti in Saqqara. Doctor Grafton Elliot Smith mentioned the red hair of Henutmehet’s mummy from the 18th dynasty. In the book The Races of Europe, Professor Carleton Coon from Harvard argues that „many officials, courtiers and priests, representing the upper class of Egyptian society but not part of the royal family, looked strikingly like modern Europeans, especially those with elongated heads„. Europeans with elongated heads are found especially in Scandinavia, Great Britain, the Netherlands and northern Germany. In Gerald O’Farrell’s book The Tutankhamun Deception, Dr. Grafton Elliot Smith acknowledged that no one knows who were those white, blue-eyed people who appeared in Egypt. But we realize that they could only be the Thracians who left Dacia, the so-called Indo-Europeans, Aryans or Sumerians.
The Egyptian priest Manetho believed that the demigods ruled Egypt after the gods. In the first century BC, the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus noted what he had learned from Egyptian priests: „in the beginning, the gods and heroes ruled Egypt for just under 18,000 years„. Also, the Turin Papyrus claims that after the gods, the country was ruled by the „venerable Shemsu-Hor” for 13,420 years. These Shemsu-Hor („Horus’ Assistants”) are Horus’ soldiers in the war against Seth, which the Egyptians claimed they settled in Edfu, the capital of Upper Egypt, and in Thinis, the capital of Lower Egypt, exceeding in time their military role, serving as emissaries and human helpers. Horus was most often depicted with white color, as can be seen in The Book of the Dead of Lady Cheritwebeshet from the 21st dynasty, currently at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The Eye of Horus, one of the oldest Egyptian symbols, was always blue. As we have already seen, after the peace treaty, Horus / Marduk got the white race, which had originated in Dacia. Therefore, his assistants, the Shemsu-Hor, whom he brought to Egypt, were those white and blonde people with blue eyes, who had been ruling Egypt since the pre-dynastic period, none other than the Thracians. One of them, named Narmer or Menes, unified Egypt around 3,100 BC, becoming the first pharaoh recognized by official history. The Narmer Palette, discovered by James E. Quibell in 1898 in Hierakonpolis, depicts the first „official” pharaoh with obvious Caucasian features, with a beard (just like the Dacians) and a crown similar to the Dacian hat on his head. One of his epithets was Hor-Aha („Horus the Fighter”), which reveals the name of the god to whom Narmer / Menes was loyal – Horus. According to Manetho, the pharaohs of the first two dynasties (therefore including Narmer / Menes) originated from Thinis, where the Shemsu-Hor settled after the end of the war with Seth. Manetho and Herodotus said that Menes founded the city of Memphis, called Inbu-Hedj by the Egyptians, which means „White walls”, a reference to the skin color of the first inhabitants of Egypt, the Pelasgians. The city of Thinis, where Narmer / Menes came from, has not yet been discovered. The most accurate translation of the name Thinis is dated to the early 19th century, meaning „From the river”. Since this city has not been discovered in Egypt, it is possible that Thinis is elsewhere, perhaps even in Dacia, the country on the Danube River. Perhaps Thinis is the Greek variant of the Timis River in Banat, a region in western Dacia, and Menes is the Greco-Egyptian variant of the Dacian name Manea, a common name in Romanian ballads. Let us not forget that, in Greek mythology, Tanais was a river-god of Scythia (Dacia), which flowed into the Black Sea. Moreover, Edgar Cayce, known as „the Sleeping Prophet„, spoke in a hypnotic state about the Land of the Carps, which stretched between the Carpathian and Caucasus Mountains, a country with a flourishing civilization from which groups of people emigrated to different places on Earth. One of these groups, led by the priest Ra-Ta, arrived in northern Africa, where they built a new country that we now call Egypt.
Some authors claim that the Moldovan cubit was used as a unit of measurement in the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza. Pyramids are also found on the territory of the Dacians, most of them being natural or only apparently natural. The Toaca Peak, located at an altitude of 1,900 meters, amazes with its pyramidal shape. At the bottom it has a truncated pyramid trunk continued with a sharp pyramidal peak. The base of the trunk is square and it is almost impossible for two ridges to naturally intersect at a 90-degree angle. The slope angle on the northern side of Toaca Peak is 52 degrees, the same as that of the Great Pyramid of Egypt. The ratio between the length and height of the sides of the Great Pyramid is identical to that of Toaca Peak, which appears to be 9 – 10,000 years old. Researcher Ion Ticleanu from the University of Bucharest stated that „the pyramid of Khufu fits perfectly into the reconstruction of the original pyramid on Toaca Peak„. While the Egyptians used their pyramids as tombs, Romanian folklore says that Toaca Peak is the tomb of some giants. Dr. Ticleanu also noted the existence of a natural hologram on Mount Ceahlau, the pyramid shadow. Every year, in the first decade of August, at sunrise, the shadows of Toaca and Piatra Ciobanului („Shepherd’s Stone” in English) peaks form, for over an hour and a half, an immense natural hologram in the shape of a perfect pyramid, a phenomenon also called „The Pyramid’s Shadow„. In the same time period of the year, another strange optical phenomenon occurs above Toaca Peak, which locals have named „The Path of Heaven„; for a few minutes, a column of intense luminosity forms above the mountain, bordered on the sides by two dark bands, which vanish into the vastness of the sky. Some researchers of these phenomena believe that they are due to the passage of one of Earth’s energy axes through the Mount Ceahlau, including Toaca Peak.
This peak is not the only one with a pyramidal shape surrounded by strange phenomena. Romanian Engineer Cristina Panculescu discovered that the Magura Peak also has a pyramid shape. Along a stretch of about five kilometers on the road that connects Magura Hill to the city of Bacau (in the Moldavia region of Romania), cars start moving uphill by themselves. Also, if the pyramids were brought to the Egyptians by the Thracians, the same is true for the obelisks. On a high hill in the Polovragi village, the remains of a prehistoric monument were discovered, an obelisk 1.09 meters long, made of granite, with the main sides measuring 0.45 meters. All faces of the obelisk are finely polished and lack inscriptions. It is not just the similarity to Egyptian obelisks that is striking, but also its size, considering that the first Egyptian obelisks were between one and four meters tall.
According to historian Herodotus, „the Egyptians pride themselves on being the oldest people in the world„. However, the only people who the ancient texts considered to be the first humans, whether we are talking about Greek or Roman writings, were the Pelasgians, whose country of origin was Dacia. Herodotus also stated that the Phoenix bird came from the place where the gods are born or live, that is from outside Egypt. The Egyptians called that country Ta-Neteru („Land of the Gods”), which was very far from Egypt, beyond mountains and seas. In the Pyramid Texts, the best people were taken to a „dwelling place of the blessed„, called Ta-Ur („Ancient Land”), which was „situated far away, beyond a large stretch of water„. As the famous Egyptologist E. A. Wallis Budge observed in Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection (1911), „the Egyptians believed that one could only reach this country by ship or with the personal assistance of the gods, who were said to take their favorites there„. The chosen ones found themselves in an enchanted garden consisting of „islands connected by channels full of flowing water, which made them always green and fertile„. On the islands in that garden, „wheat grew to a height of five cubits, with the ears two cubits long and the stalks three, while rye grew to a height of seven cubits, with the ears three cubits long and the stalks four” (a royal cubit being approximately 0.52 meters). This description seems identical to that of the homeland of the Aryan race in Persian scriptures, Airyana Vaejo, which we already know it was Dacia. That „great stretch of water” the Egyptians had to cross to reach the land of the gods was the Mediterranean Sea, located north of Egypt. In the ancient papyri deposited in the sarcophagi of the deceased, which today form the Egyptian Book of the Dead, reference is often made to the divine and blessed land in the northern part of the ancient world, located near the great and sacred river, where the gods were born and where souls of the dead migrate. The great and sacred river was the Danube, and the land of the gods was Dacia. On its way to this land, heading towards the Mountain of Life, located north of the Nun River, the soul of the deceased passed through a gate, called the Ser gate. This word resembles „fer„, the popular form of the Romanian word „fier” („iron”). Since the Nun River was the Danube, the Ser gate is the same as the Iron Gates of the Danube (a gorge on the Danube which forms part of the boundary between Serbia and Romania). Anyone coming from Egypt to the Carpathian Mountains would have had to cross the Danube, and the Iron Gates would have been a suitable access route for this. Then, according to the Egyptian Book of the Dead, the soul headed towards Duat, the circular dwelling place of Osiris (whom we find in Thracian legends under the name Zamolxis). Next to Duat flowed a river that divided into several branches, and the mountains that surrounded it had seven passes. A quick look at the map of Romania shows that north of the Danube, after Wallachia, there is Transylvania, an area surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains, which are divided by deep valleys into seven groups. „On a patch of land, on a mouth of heaven” is where the action of the ballad The Little Ewe takes place, the mouth of heaven being one of these access roads to the land of the gods beyond the mountains. The river near Duat is also the Danube, which before flowing into the Black Sea, splits into three branches. Duat was considered by the Egyptians to be the world beyond, while Transylvania was named by the Romans as „The Land beyond the Forest„. In Prehistoric Dacia (1913), Nicolae Densusianu concluded: „But the holy land in Pelasgian Egyptian religion remained the land at the edge of the Earth, from Oceanos Potamos or Istros. In this part of the world, for the ancient Pelasgians of Egypt, there was the divine region, their ancient religious monuments, images of their protective gods, the land of their ancestors worshiped as gods. Here were their holy mountains. Here were the pillars of heaven. Here, according to ancient Egyptian beliefs, was the divine region of wheat, the place of abundance where wheat grew to a height of 7 cubits, straw to 4 and the ear to 3 cubits. Here, the souls of the deceased in Egypt emigrated to continue a new and happy life, just as the souls of the Pelasgian heroes from Greece came here after death. Here was the great divine river, called Nuh, the father of the gods, which flowed from west to east, identical to Oceanos Potamos or the prehistoric Istros„.
As Densusianu noticed, not only the Egyptians considered Dacia to be the place where the souls of the righteous went after death. For the Greeks, the Snake Island in the Black Sea, formerly known as Leuke – the White Island (completely unjustifiably given to Ukraine at the end of the 2nd millennium by the former President of Romania, Emil Constantinescu), which was also called in Antiquity the Island of the Blessed, of the Righteous, of the Heroes or of the Hesperides, was the place where the souls of the heroes went after death. It is said that Achilles was taken there after being killed by Paris in the Trojan War and it was also where the goddess Hera brought him the beautiful Helen to be his wife. In Prehistoric Dacia, Densusianu added: „The Danube Delta, in close proximity to the island of Leuce, had in prehistoric times and until the time of Alexander the Great, the character of a holy land„. In fact, before crossing the Danube in 335 BC, Alexander the Great asked forgiveness from the gods for daring to step on the sacred land. For the Norse, the souls of warriors went to Valhalla, where they spent time with the gods. The name of this place of Norse heroes was formed from Valahia (the Romanian name of Wallachia), by reversing the letters „ah” and transforming the letter „i” into the group „ll„. Also, if the Egyptians considered Transylvania a place from the realm of the gods, calling it Duat, the Greeks did the same. For them, Tartarus was a place in the afterlife where the Titans, Cyclopes and Hecatoncheires were imprisoned. The name given by the Greeks to that place comes from Tartaria, the famous Transylvanian location where the oldest writing in the world was discovered. In fact, according to an old tradition, the Titans defeated by God took refuge in the Cira cave in Dacia. A similar version was presented by Dio Cassius in The History of Rome: „The Roman general Crassus, in the battle against the Getae, captured King Dapyx’s brother and then headed to the cave called Cira, a vast and powerful cavern, where a large number of the inhabitants of this land had taken refuge, taking with them their most precious objects and herds. In this cave, according to legend, the Titans had sought refuge when they were defeated by the gods„. Nicolae Densusianu believed that the legendary Atlantis and Tartarus, where the giant Typhon and the Titan Cronus were imprisoned, were located in the Herculane – Iron Gates area. In the 11th issue of Adrian Paunescu’s Flacara magazine in 2001, the bioenergy therapist Iulian Urziceanu from Craiova (the largest city of the south west of Romania and capital of Dolj County) even claimed that the most energetically charged point in the world is located in Baile Herculane (a spa town in Romanian Banat area). However, the Dacians at the foot of the Southern Carpathians considered Transylvania as „the Other World” or „the World Beyond„. And not just them, the Romans naming the ancient Ardeal as Transylvania, meaning „The Land Beyond the Forest”. Later, this land was mistaken with the Underworld, as can be seen in most religions. In Romanian folk tales, the hero (most often Prince Charming) reached „the other world” not by descending underground, but by walking on the surface, crossing mountains and forests. Transylvania is surrounded by forested mountains, so it fits the description. In fairy tales, all kinds of supernatural creatures lived there, such as dragons, giants, witches or other creatures. Also in this world there were magical trees with enchanted fruits, such as golden apples. For ancient Greek chroniclers, the garden of the Hesperides, where golden apples grew, was located in Dacian territory. Here was also found the famous Golden Fleece sought by Jason and the Argonauts. Transylvania as a divine garden is also found in the first part of the Bible, being that Garden of Eden where the first humans lived with their divinity, where enchanted trees grew, such as the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge. The King James Bible states that Yahweh Elohim „drove out the man„, but in the Orthodox Bible, after banishing Adam, the god „placed him near the garden of Eden„, which is in Dacia located in the south and east of the Carpathian Mountains, near Transylvania, where the Dacians lived. When the first humans were expelled, the god „placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life„, which suggests that the Garden of Eden was a closed space, since guarding only the path to it was necessary. Looking at the map of Romania, we see that Transylvania is surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains on all sides, forming a natural barrier. Considering that the cherubim of the Jews were not the angels of modern Christianity, but creatures called sphinxes by the Greeks, purushamriga by the Indians, lamma and alad by the Sumerians and lamassu and shedu by the Akkadians, those placed to guard the Garden of Eden / Transylvania are the many sphinxes located in the Carpathian Mountains (such as the ones at Toplet, Stanisoara, Piatra Arsa, the Bratocea Sphinx, the Stone of Solomon Sphinx and, the most famous one, the Great Sphinx of Bucegi). Sphinxes’ role throughout the world was to guard the secrets of the gods, often being represented in front of temples. Similarly, the sphinxes of the Carpathians can be considered the guardians of the realm of the gods, which was forbidden to humans in a long-lost time. Furthermore, exceptional vizible energetic charges were discovered in the area surrounding each sphinx in the Carpathians. Pavel Codrescu, among other radiesthetists who measured the energies around the sphinxes, claims that their power is so great that it could burn half of Romania to a depth of about two meters, if it was not controlled. „The energies in those areas are… intelligent and have certain metal preferences„, he added. Locals claim that strange voices speaking an unknown language can be heard near the sphinxes. In light of these things, we can consider that the sphinxes / cherubims are weapons disguised as stone carved faces, placed „to keep the way to the tree of life„. That „flaming sword” the sphinxes were fitted with are the energies that could burn everything to a depth of about two meters. The role of these guards seems to be to prevent humans from accessing the realm of the gods, just as the biblical story claims. This would be the reason why, in the legend of Oedipus, the sphinx demanded that passersby answer a riddle or, rather, know the access password, with the ignorant being instantly killed. Fortunately, the guards have been deactivated, as they no longer kill anyone who dares to approach them. The locals actually say that Tigaile Mari Sphinx was originally an angel who was supposed to guard a prison where the Heavenly Lord had thrown the devils. Ashamed that he was not vigilant enough, allowing the demons to escape, the angel begged God to forgive him and let him remain at his failure’s place. The Heavenly Father listened to his plea and transformed him into a stone guardian.
We know from ancient chronicles that not only Transylvania was considered a sacred place, but the entire land of Dacia. The Bible implies the same thing, stating that the Garden was a place in Eden, a territory equivalent to heaven in the Judeo-Christian vision: „Yahweh Elohim planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed„. We also notice the location of Eden in the east, with Romania / Dacia being in southeastern Europe. Therefore, the entire country represented the territory of the gods, Transylvania / the Garden of Eden / the Egyptian Duat being the area where the gods lived, and the rest of the country being the place where the gods’ chosen ones, the Pelasgians / Dacians, lived. The Danube was called Eridani in the past and Sumerian myths suggest that Eridu was the earthly home of the god Enki. We encountered this god under the name Zamolxis in the Dacians’ religion, living in a cave in the Bucegi Mountains, but also in the so-called Luana’s Country from the Buzau Mountains, in a huge fortress destroyed in the final battle of the second war of the gods. Also in Bucegi, Enki / Prometheus was crucified on the top of Omu Peak, not far from the Sphinx. According to Herodotus, Ares ruled over Scythia and was considered an old national king of the Dacians, residing in the Getae’s mountains (Carpathians). Mars / Ares was considered the protector of the Getic fields by Virgil, while according to Byzantine historian Jordanes the god was born in the land of the Getae. Greek poet Pindar stated that after the construction of Troy, Apollo returned to his homeland on the Danube, to the Hyperboreans, a place where he often spent time with his sister, Artemis. All these ancient testimonies prove that Dacia was considered the land of the gods and Transylvania was the place where these gods lived, the „garden” forbidden to humans until the gods left. Besides, during his visit in 1999, Pope John Paul II called Romania „the Garden of the Mother of God„. Also, a few decades before the Pope’s visit, Indian Sundar Singh used a similar expression in his so-called apocalyptic prophecy: „in the times to come, Romania will become and remain a paradisiacal garden of divine blessing, love, happiness, purity and wisdom„. He also said that „Romania will go through several phases of fundamental transformations, eventually becoming, thanks to its exemplary spiritualization, a true spiritual center that can be compared to the mythical ‘New Canaan’, and Bucharest will become an essential center of this fire (…) and will be considered by all peoples as a true earthly ‘New Jerusalem’„. In reality, Sundar Singh did not make any prophecies about Romania, these being written around 1939 by a Romanian spiritualist who claimed that they were dictated to him by the dead Indian’s spirit. But let us note the comparison of Romania with a divine garden, just like the Pope six decades later.
Dacia, the place where the righteous reunited with their deities after death, eventually became a terrifying land for the ancients. Initially just the place where the Titans, Cyclopes and Hecatoncheires were imprisoned, Tartarus became for a prison of sinful souls for the Greeks. In Romanian legends, the ancient gods („zei” in Romanian) became zmei, frightening creatures that lived in Transylvania alongside other monsters. From ancient authors we know that the Greeks and Romans were not brave enough to cross the Danube. Alexander the Great and the Persian Emperor Darius dared to step on the land of the gods, but they fled after a very short time. Even the Dacians were seen as strange and frightening people. Pliny, citing Apollonides’ Periplus of Europe, wrote that in Scythia there were women with two eyelids on each eye. The Greek physician Marcellus of Side noted in 138 AD that the Neuri, Dacians who lived near the Dniester River, were sorcerers, each of them changing into wolves for a few days every year. Also, poet Aristeas of Proconnesus, a prophet of Apollo, described the Arimaspians Dacians as „the most robust of all men, each having one eye in their beautiful forehead„. And even today, due to Bram Stoker’s story of vampire Dracula, Romania is viewed by much of the world as a mystical land full of witches and monsters. However, in reality, this is the earthly paradise where the gods once lived alongside the world’s first humans, the Pelasgians.
However, the image of a terrifying land was not due to the ancients’ imagination, but to mysterious places where inexplicable phenomena happen, places found in large numbers in Dacia’s territory. One such place is the Hoia-Baciu Forest near Cluj, located at a short distance from Tartaria (which gave the name Tartarus of the Greeks), a place considered „the Bermuda Triangle of Romania„, included by the British television station BBC and the American magazine Travel + Leisure in the top of the scariest places in the world. From the first steps among the trees, the visitor is assaulted by inexplicable feelings of nausea, anxiety, vomiting sensations, headaches and even skinburns. As he delves deeper into the heart of the forest, he is overcome by a feeling of unease and cold shivers run down his spine. For a long time, the locals avoided talking about this place, which they believed to be cursed and even to be the Devil’s dwelling. Numerous disappearances of people, strange appearances of human faces, immaterial or material structures, strange lights of various shapes and colors, or UFOs with various geometric shapes (such as pyramids, spheres, cylinders, cones or cubes) have attracted researchers from all over the world. Many of these phenomena are invisible to the human eye, but not to filming or photography equipment. The forest also presents magnetic anomalies, such as inexplicable fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Among the most shocking manifestations are the sudden traces that appear on the ground, snow or grass, right in front of the viewers. Many tourists have been terrified after developing photos taken in the Hoia-Baciu Forest, where dozens of human heads could be seen, some of which were later identified as figures of deceased people. The vegetation shows dehydration and burns of the stems and leaves in certain areas of the forest. Strange and frightening sounds, human voices or giggles are often heard among the trees. For parapsychologists, the Hoia-Baciu Forest is an interdimensional gateway through which spirits can enter the Earth’s material dimension. Esoteric sciences initiates consider the forest a portal between the astral plane and the telluric plane, an intermediate zone similar to Dante Alighieri’s Purgatory, where the souls of the deceased stay for 40 days, when their deeds are judged and their fate is decided. Regardless of the nature of the phenomena in the Transylvanian forest, it remains the most important area of parapsychological phenomena manifestation on the entire planet. Such places, like the Hoia-Baciu Forest, have generated the terrifying image of Tartarus or Hell. However, not all of Transylvania was viewed by the ancients as a terrifying place, but only a part of it, especially the western part. In the east were the blessed fields, called Elysium by the Greeks, where the souls of the righteous rested with the gods.
Nicolae Densusianu believed that the legendary Atlantis was located on the territory of the Dacians. In Plato’s view, Atlantis was an island or even a continent „larger than Asia (Minor) and Libya combined„, located beyond Hercules’ pillars, where people much more technologically advanced than the rest of the earthlings lived. We have seen that the Pelasgians represented the first human civilization, the difference between them and the rest of the world being best emphasized by Florence Farmbough in the Encyclopaedia Britannica from 1922 – 1923: „While our Breton ancestors ran wild through the forests half-naked, with their bodies bruised and their minds prey to the most degrading superstitions, the Land of Romania was civilized, had institutions, comfort and even the luxury of a cultured and well-organized community„. The Pillars of Hercules, mentioned by Plato, are nothing but the Iron Gates located near Herculane. The Atlanteans received their name from King Atlas, who was none other than the Titan who held up the sky in the Greeks’ opinion, in that place of the Carpathian Mountains called the Axis Mundi, Polus Geticus or the Navel of the World. For Plato, Atlantis had a circular shape, just like the Egyptian Duat, the Greek Tartarus or Dante Alighieri’s Hell, which are alternative names for Transylvania surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. Therefore, the story of Atlantis, which the wise Solon learned from some Egyptian priests (whose ancestors were Thracians), is inspired by the story of Transylvania, which in prehistory seems to have been an island, as Plato claimed. In The Secrets of the Earth – Volume 3, Romanian author Eugen Delcea claims that „the Citadel of the Mountains (i.e. Transylvania) was surrounded, in ancient times, by the Pannonian Sea to the west (where the Etruscans later became famous sailors!) and the Getic Lake (from the beginning of the Quaternary period) to the south, occupying Oltenia, Muntenia and the southern part of Moldavia. Add to these Apsoro / Oceanos Potamos / Ister / Danube and Oceanos / Pontus Euxinus / Black Sea, and you will understand why Plato presented Atlantis as an island larger than Libya and Asia (Minor) put together and how the inhabitants of an island could possess all the possible riches of the time and dominate the world„. Professor Doctor Augustin Deac also claimed something similar in the article From Prehistory to History in the January 1985 issue of the Us Thracians magazine: „Organized human life in society – according to Virgil Oghina’s estimations – began in Europe, on the territory of Romania. The objective causes that favored this process are multiple. The island formed by the Carpathian Mountains, closed to the west by the Apuseni Mountains, including the external hilly regions, has a large surface area of about 150,000 square kilometers. The Transylvanian plateau was crossed by numerous watercourses, populated with many species of fish; the hilly and mountainous regions were covered with vast pastures and forests with a rich fauna and flora. These natural conditions offered human habitation possibilities among the most favorable and abundant, leading to the hypothesis that the Carpathian Island – Transylvania – was inhabited by a numerous population„. Other researchers have also located Plato’s Atlantis on the territory of present-day Romania, although not all of them believe it is Transylvania. American professor of oceanography Robert Ballard, who discovered the wreck of the Titanic, believes that Atlantis was located on the territory of the present day Black Sea. He believes that about seven millennia ago, the strip of land separating the Mediterranean Sea from the Black Sea lake break apart under water pressure, destroying the civilization of the time. American Michael Robinson, a professor at Ohio University specializing in catastrophic floods that happened on Earth since ancient times, embraces Robert Ballard’s hypothesis. However, unlike Ballard, Robinson preferred to investigate not the Turkish coast of the Black Sea, but the Romanian coast near Snake Island, where he discovered strange cyclopean constructions, pyramids and cathedrals. „In my research I relied heavily on mystical texts that show that all civilizations have their roots in your country’s territory, and I had access to all the discoveries made in Romania, discoveries that Romanians have not even heard of„, said Professor Robinson. He believes that the basins of Romanian rivers are the remnants of a huge river that crossed the Eurasian continent or a freshwater lake that covered Romania in the past, with Atlantis being located on Romania’s territory and the citadels discovered in the mountains being only remnants of what was left after the ancient civilization sank. „What people have called Noah and his family were, in fact, the only surviving Atlanteans from the cataclysm. And the ark was built of cedar wood in your country, Romania, the place where the great Deluge of the Earth began„, concluded Professor Michael Robinson. Romanian ethnographer Adrian Bucurescu also spoke of Dacian Atlantis: „Only one people has ever ruled the whole Earth, and that was the people of the Atlanteans. Their religious, military and civil center was on the northwest coast of the Black Sea. It is true that only ten countries of the empire had reached an advanced stage of organization; these stretched throughout Europe, western and southern Asia, as well as the northern half of Africa. The Black Sea is approximately at the center of this area. The other areas of the planet, still too wild, were only controlled by the Atlanteans, who encountered only vague resistance there. For the people outside the actual empire, the Atlanteans were even gods!„. In his 1913 book, Nicolae Densusianu showed that the Pelasgian empire had a center north of the Danube and nine provinces. This could explain why 10 is considered the number of God, the perfection, and why for the Dacians 19 (1+9) was a magic number. In his book Atlantis, The Eighth Continent, American linguist Charles Frambach Berlitz showed on a modern map of the Atlantic Ocean floor that in the area of the Canary Islands it still exists today a mountain mass covered by water, which he named Dacia, considering that the Atlanteans left for the Carpathian-Danubian area and the Thracians are the descendants of the Atlanteans. In his poem Memento Mori from 1872, the great Romanian national poet Mihai Eminescu also suggested a connection between the gods of Dacia and the Black Sea:
„From the depths of the Black Sea, from high and deep halls
Amongst arched rocks, from gigantic portals
The army of the Dacian gods marched out in long rows (…)
The Dacian gods reach the sea, which opens its portals,
They rush up high steps and descend into dark halls
With their light, they bury their dark life;
But she, shuddering with deep pain,
In images of waves sings the fall of Dacia
And tenderly caresses the shores with her blue arms.„
The Atlanteans have often been identified with the Hyperboreans, people both technologically and spiritually developed. The first to write about the Hyperboreans was Homer around 800 BC in his epic poem Epigoni, placing their land in northern Thrace. The next was Hesiod, a century later. Around 520 BC, poet Pindar described the demigods Hercules and Perseus heading to the Danube ravines to find the blessed Hyperboreans. Aristotle in 384 BC and Diogenes Laertios in 193 BC wrote that, according to ancient traditions, the history of Pythagoras and Zamolxis took place in Hyperborea. Geographer Strabo claimed that the Hyperboreans lived in Dacia. He said that ancient Greek historians reffered to the peoples who lived beyond the Black Sea, the Danube and the Adriatic Sea as Hyperboreans, Sarmatians and Arimaspi: „The first to describe the different parts of the world say that the Hyperboreans lived above the Pontus Euxinus (i.e. Black Sea) and the Ister (Danube)”. For the ancient Greeks, Scythia / Dacia was the extreme north of Europe, beyond which lay the unknown. Apollonios, quoting Timagetus, who wrote On Ports, said that the Ister (Danube) „flows down from the mountains of Hyperborea„, which indicates that the Greeks believed Hyperborea to be the territory of the Dacians. Even in 1255 AD, the archpastor Nicephorus Blemmydes wrote that from the Danube to the north, most of the European continent belonged to the Dacians, and Dionysius Periegetes noted: „In the following, I will write about the largest country that stretched from Asia Minor to Iberia and from North Africa beyond Scandinavia, the immense country of the Dacians„. About two and a half millennia ago, Greek poet Pindar stated that, after the building of Troy, god Apollo returned to his homeland on the Danube, to the Hyperboreans. Three centuries before our era, Apollonios of Rhodes, like Homer, claimed in Argonautica that the Hyperboreans were the Pelasgians who lived in northern Thrace. Roman poet Virgil, the author of the Aeneid, wrote about Orpheus: „Alone, he wanders through the Hyperborean ice and the ice covered Tanais (i.e. the Don River), and the never-snowless plains around the Riphean Mountains (the Carpathians)”. In one of his epigrams, Roman poet Martial wrote to Marcellinus: „Soldier Marcellinus, you are now leaving to carry on your shoulders the northern sky of the Hyperboreans and the stars of the Getae Pole, which barely move„. In the Epistulae he called the victory of the emperor Domitian against the Dacians „hyperboreus triumphus” („the Hyperborean triumph”), remarking: „Three times he passed through the perfidious horns of the Sarmatian Danube; three times he bathed his horse in the snow of the Getae; always modest, he refused the triumph he deserved and brought with him only the reputation of having defeated the world of the Hyperboreans„. Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria attributed the epithet of „Hyperborean” to Zamolxis, the god who lived among the Dacians. The 5th century Roman writer Macrobius refers to „the regions watered by the Don and Danube… which Antiquity called Hyperborean„. The most renowned temple of Apollo Hyperboreus was located on the holy island at the mouth of the Danube, Leuke (now called Snake Island), where the Greeks believed the spirits of heroes went after death. In the 19th century, the temple was practically dismantled and transported to Moscow, where it disappeared without a trace. According to the unanimous testimony of the ancient Greeks, the oracle at Delphi, dedicated to Apollo, was founded by the Hyperboreans, who annually sent gifts to the sanctuary. An ancient tradition says that in a very distant epoch, the Hyperboreans saved Greece from the invasion of the Gauls or Celts. Greek geographer Pausanias saw in Pergamum around 174 AD a historical tablet depicting the war of the Athenians against the Gauls or Celts and the invasion of the Hyperboreans to aid the Greeks. Also, the Hyperborean Abaris, son of the Dacian king Sentu, who lived around 1200 BC, was one of the civilizers of his country, having extensive knowledge of practical medicine. He traveled extensively throughout Europe and especially Greece, carrying an arrow that he used to heal diseases with. He wrote Oracles about Scythia, Theogony and a book about oracles, which were still being read in public in the days of Aristophanes (c. 446 – 386 BC). He was very soberly and abstinent and he ate nothing at all, according to the ancients. It was said that the Hyperborean Abaris erected a temple in Laconia in honor of goddess Ceres’ daughter. To conclude, the Atlanteans, Hyperboreans, Pelasgians, Dacians, Scythians or Getae represent one and the same people, the primordial race of mankind.
As in many other ancient peoples’ myths, the Sumerians also had a garden of the gods, called Dilmun (or Tilmun in Akkadian), where the gods lived together with the most righteous humans. According to the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim, the survivor of the Deluge, and his wife were taken to Dilmun, where they received immortality. This land was „at the mouths or shores of the distant river„, in „the place where the Sun rises” (that is in the east). In the cartographic records of the first century AD, the Danube River splitted between the mouths of Olt and Vedea rivers and formed an island where the city of Dimum was located, which had a name very similar to the Sumerian Dilmun. On the southern bank of the Danube, in present-day Bulgaria, there was the city of Dimum, now called Belene. In the Cosmography of Ravenna from the 7th century, the city of Tilmun on the Danube is mentioned, a term identical to that used by the Akkadians for the land of the gods. Most likely, the name Dilmun was derived from Dimum, and then Tilmun. According to the Akkadian clay tablets, Akkadian emperor Sargon the Great (2242 – 2186 BC) succeeded three times in reaching the Upper Sea (the Black Sea), where he captured the land of Tilmun. Other clay tablets from around 1800 BC refer to a commercial expedition „to Dilmun to buy copper from there„. During the Kassite period of King Burna-Buriyash I (around 1500 BC), a messenger of the monarch sent letters to his superior in the country of Dilmun / Tilmun. An Assyrian inscription from around 1250 BC (just before the Hyperborean Abaris traveled through Europe) says that the king of Assyria was going to take over the countries of Dilmun and Meluha (Lower Egypt), as well as the Lower and Upper Seas.
In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the hero went to the „Land of Dilmun, the garden of the Sun„, where the survivors of the Deluge lived. When he reached the mountain pass, Gilgamesh exclaimed: „in these mountains I once saw lions„. Referring to Dacia, historian Herodotus argued that „only in these lands lions are born in Europe” and the lion („leu” in Romanian) is still the name of Romania’s currency today. Eventually, the king of the city of Uruk reached Mount Masu, „which guards the rising and setting of the Sun„, whose peaks „were so high that their crests touched the sky and its slopes reached into the world beyond (i.e. Transylvania)”. If this mountain is Kogaionon (the Omu Peak), the sacred mountain of the ancient world, on which Enki / Prometheus was crucified, Gilgamesh had to cross it to reach „the world beyond„, Dilmun / Transylvania. The epic states that Masu is „the mountain which guards the rising” of the Sun while Romanian folklore, inherited from the Dacians, claims that Omu Peak is the first touched by the Sun’s rays at sunrise. There, „at the mountain gates, creatures half-man, half-dragon, Scorpions, stood guard; their faces were terrifying, their gaze killed people„. In Romanian tales there are creatures similar to these „Scorpions„, called „zmei„, which have the appearance of dragons, although they often appear in human form. In Slavic languages, the word „zmeu” (the singular form of the „zmei„) means „snake”. In Romanian fairy tales, the zmei live in „the other realm” but sometimes come to the world of humans, most often to abduct beautiful girls. To cross the mountain and reach Dilmun, Gilgamesh had to pass through a tunnel that „measured twelve miles in length and was completely dark inside; and in its heart, darkness reigned„. The scorpions / zmei opened the hero’s gate to the mountain and he crossed the tunnel and reached „the garden of the gods„, where „bushes with precious stones grew on their branches„. Thorns and brambles „were made of hematite stones, rare gems and agates, and there were pearls from the depths of the sea„. Gilgamesh even saw „a cornelian fruit, endowed with branches that delighted the sight, and on the leaves of lapis lazuli hung fruits that delighted the sight„. In that garden, the hero met the sun-god Shamash, the vine-goddess Siduri, Urshanabi (the Deluge survivors’ helmsman) and Utnapishtim, the hero of the Deluge.
The epic states that Gilgamesh crossed the mountain through a long tunnel. It is believed that the Bucegi Mountains are crossed by a chain of underground roadways known only to a few people. In times of distress, the Dacian men sent their women and children there with their treasures, while they went to fight the invaders. Just like in the Epic of Gilgamesh, the mountains can be crossed through tunnels. In 105 AD, the army of King Decebalus crossed the mountains through such a tunnel in just two days. When the Roman emperor Trajan learned the Dacians’ secret, he ordered the galleries to be sealed. In the book Incursion into the Underground World, Romanian General Emil Strainu wrote that a German military column disappeared into a tunnel under the Carpathian Mountains in September 1944. In recent years, energy measurements have been performed in the Bucegi area, which have found the existence of force fields and underground tunnels that cross the mountains. Researchers cannot determine whether the tunnels were made by humans or just discovered and used by them, ignoring what the Dacians told us: the tunnels are the work of the great god Zamolxis.
Not only the constructions in Dacia’s underground are fascinating, but also those on the surface. Florin Dragan wrote that „Dacian architecture is unique in Europe. The grand architectural complex in the Orastie Mountains is comparable to the achievements of other peoples who also had a centuries-old state organization. The brilliant interweaving of nature’s magnificence and the walls’ monumentalization has no equal in all of Europe„. In a 200 square kilometers area, five citadels and dozens of important settlements such as villages and sanctuaries were built. Using natural terrain conditions, the Dacians had turned the Orastie Mountains into a true fortress. They built the citadels’ walls without mortar, archaeologists and historians noting that the stone had been brought from tens of kilometers away, in extremely difficult terrain conditions, and some believe that more stone was carried there than exists in the Great Pyramid of Egypt. The citadels were surrounded by waves of red earth, brought from afar, and piles of metallic slag were found near many dwellings. Cluj archaeologists discovered here the largest amount of iron per square meter in the world. The mountain peaks inhabited by the Dacians were surrounded by walls of stones weighing 3 – 5 tons, brought from a great distance, and had terraces cut into the rock, with round, elliptical or triangular shapes. At Piatra Muncelului, Varful Secuiului, Tarsa and Dealul Grosului (in the south-west of Transylvania), humanoid-shaped terraces were created. By raising or terracing mountain peaks, the Dacians turned the distance between them into isosceles, equilateral or rectangular triangles. Sarmizegetusa Regia, the former capital of Dacia during the reign of King Decebalus, forms an equilateral triangle with Simeria (the place from where the Sumerians migrated) and Tartaria (where the oldest writing in the world was discovered). At Sarmizegetusa there are radioactive rocks and iron sulfide, vanadium, nickel and silicon. On many stones of the Dacian constructions there is no microvegetation growing and moss grows very slowly, but the stones that have been removed from the area have moss growing on them and have been damaged by the weather. Researchers suggest that the Dacians installed clay magnifiers under the stones to collect infrared and ultraviolet rays and prevent the development of bacteria. Also at Sarmizegetusa Regia there is a large circular calendar, considered to be the most accurate in history, very close to that of NASA. Romanian civil engineer Paul Lazar Tonciulescu wrote in The Impact of Rome on the Dacians: „the Dacians knew and used a solar calendar considered the most precise in Antiquity. The Dacian year had 365.242197 days, compared to 365.242198 established by modern astronomy„. Traces of silver have been detected in the water flowing through the Dacian sanctuaries. „The sanctuaries discovered in Romania have an architectural refinement that Greek temples will not reach for more than twelve hundred years„, noticed American Professor Paul Mac Kendrick. In the mountainous area in Buzau county called Luana’s Country, giant human settlements from the Stone Age were found on a large plateau, with excavations showing that the settlement was destroyed instantly by a devastating fire, witch burned the ground to a depth of about half a meter. It is also said that at the end of the last millennium, a huge underground city was discovered under Sarmizegetusa Regia, covering an area of over 200 square kilometers. In the early 1990s, the underground of the Gradistea area was surveyed by a Russian satellite searching for ancient and prehistoric sites. If Romanian legends say that the Dacians hid their gold in tunnels, and Gilgamesh discovered an area with many precious stones at the end of such a tunnel, the underground city is also very rich in gold. In Vartoape area from the Orastie Mountains, spread on approximately four square kilometers, there are 75 conical pits of different sizes (some with diameters of up to 70 meters), from which several tunnels lead to the nearby mountains (one reaching under the sanctuaries of Sarmizegetusa Regia, probably the one through which Decebalus’ army fled from the Romans, crossing the mountains in two days). In the Vartoape area, devices detected many parallelepipedic enclosures joined like the rooms of a house, many of them connected with the plateau above through ancient roads. In this area and nearby there are the most impressive remains of the complex, including sanctuaries made of andesite (a stone that can now only be cut with diamond) and buildings much older than those in Sarmizegetusa, located in the center of the underground mega-city. We can only understand Barbara Deppert Lippitz, a German expert in ancient treasures, who exclaimed: „I am one of the most well-known specialists, not only in Europe, but throughout the world, and I tell the truth. The Dacian civilization is magnificent and I am proud to fight for the Dacians here, in your country„. This underground city extended not only under Sarmizegetusa Regia, but also under Simeria (the birthplace of the Sumerians), Tartaria (where the oldest writing in the world was discovered) and Deva (the area from which the Aryans migrated to Asia). References to this underground city are found in the stories of the ancient Greeks, who believed that giant Typhon lived in ancient times in the land of the Arimans (i.e. in the same area), well hidden underground. In the Theogony, Hesiod wrote that Echidna, a creature half nymph and half serpent, lived in Arima land in a deep cave made by the gods, which looked like a shining palace, from where she guarded the entire region.
In the 4th century BC, Greek writer Ephorus divided the inhabitants of the Earth into Indians, Ethiopians, Scythians and Celts. He wrote that the Scythians were older in Europe than the Greeks, that they were indigenous in Europe and they, before anyone else, invented everything needed for lifestyle comfort. Plato shared the same opinion, adding that many of the Greek words were borrowed from barbarians (i.e. the Thracians, named so because of their custom of wearing beards). Greek writer and physician Clement of Alexandria, who lived between 150 and 216 AD, appreciated that „the Greeks stole their philosophy from the barbarians„, while Greek philosopher and hystorian Dio Chrysostom wrote that „the Getae are wiser than almost all barbarians and especially than the Greeks„. Moreover, the most important philosophers of ancient Greece were Ionians or Thracians by origin, such as Thales of Miletus, Anaxagoras, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Xenophon, Pythagoras, Herodotus, Thucydides, Hecataeus, Homer, Sophocles, Archimedes, Aristotle and Plato. In 1923, the renowned French Hellenist Auguste Jardé remarked: „The Greeks themselves know nothing about the primitive history of the regions that will form Greece. To this day, Greek soil has not yielded any material trace of the Paleolithic. The oldest inhabitants of Greece are the Thracians, belonging to the Neolithic period„. Roman historian Justin, citing Trogus Pompeius who in 28 BC wrote a universal history in 44 volumes, entitled Historiae Philippicae et totius mundi origines et terrae situs („History of the Philippians and of the Whole World, the Origin and Location of the Earth”), noted about the Dacians: „Their beginnings were as brilliant as their rule and they became famous both for the power of their men and the power of their women. The Scythian people have always been considered the oldest, although there has long been a dispute between the Scythians and the Egyptians regarding the antiquity of their respective peoples„. A pointless dispute, as we have seen, since predynastic Egypt was colonized by the Dacians. The greatest expert on the history of religions, Mircea Eliade, clarifies the Dacian origin of the Indo-Europeans: „For more than a century, scholars have tried to identify the original homeland of the Indo-Europeans, decipher their proto-history and establish the phases of their migrations. The original homeland was sought in northern and central Europe, the steppes of Russia, Central Asia, Anatolia and so on. Today it is agreed to locate the Indo-European focus in the regions north of the Black Sea, between the Carpathians and the Caucasus„. In one of his books, Romanian writer Renato Zamfir notes that „late discoveries in Germany and Denmark (…), those on the Bucharest – Belgrade axis at Lepenski-Vir, those in Sarmizegetusa in southern Apuseni Mountains, those in southern Carpathians, or those on Danube at Cernavoda, confirms not only the permanent settlement of these territories, but also the fact that agriculture and animal husbandry reached here an advanced level compared to some centers of the Far and Middle East. They come to contradict this wrong thesis and to re-establish historical truth in its rightful place. In the mentioned localities, especially in southeastern European areas, a breed of cattle and one of pigs, that is the first domesticated animals, have been discovered. The material evidence discovered in these geographical areas or local communities relates to the period between 9000 and 6000 BC (…) the conclusion can be drawn is that the superior forms of agriculture and animal husbandry, i.e. domestication, are specifically European elements or, more accurately, Atlantean, and not, as was believed until recently, a recent unmediated import from the Mesopotamian area. The uninterrupted existence, the millennial continuity of life throughout the European territory (…) constitutes a reality that speaks not only of continuity, but even of primordiality„. In 1968, John Maridis, a professor at the University of London, noted: „The Neolithic cultures (5500 – 2500 BC) of Cucuteni and Gumelnita are perhaps the richest in Europe„. French anthropologist Eugéne Pittard said that „the ethnic ancestors of the Romanians undoubtedly date back to the earliest stages of mankind, with Romanian Neolithic civilization representing only a recent chapter in the country’s history„. In the 1922 – 1923 encyclopedia Peoples of All Nations, English specialist E.C. Davies stated: „Long before the Roman eagles entered the Carpathian – Danubian territory, now known as Romania, there existed a civilization whose roots went far back into the Neolithic era. The perfect unity of this primitive civilization is obvious in the perfect similarity of weapons of war and tools of labor, tumuli and the remains of ancient dwellings, from Transylvania to the Black Sea„. Peruvian Daniel Ruzo, perhaps the most passionate researcher of megaliths and the author of the term „Masma Civilization„, declared in 1968, after a visit to Romania: „The Carpathians are in a world region where the European center of the oldest known culture to this day was located„. The statements in Lithuanian archaeologist and anthropologist Marija Gimbutas’ book Civilization and Culture: Prehistoric European Finds in Southeastern Europe are also remarkable: „Romania is the cradle of what I have called Old Europe, a cultural entity that existed between 6500 – 3500 BC, focused on a matriarchal, theocratic, peaceful, loving and art-creating society that preceded the patriarchal Indo-European warrior societies of the Bronze and Iron Ages. These people used a sacred writing system beginning at least at the end of the sixth millennium BC (…) Around 5500 BC, the old Europeans in Central-Eastern Europe developed a writing system about 2,000 years before the Egyptians and Sumerians (…) The oldest discoveries of objects with writing signs were made at Turdas, then at Tartaria. It is now certain that the ‘Old European’ writing is much older than the Sumerian writing, so chronological comparisons with Sumer are not the most successful. The persistent use of the same signs for 20,000 years is evidence that they have a specific connotation„. Japanese university professor Minoru Nambara, a specialist in the history of civilizations, wrote: „Maramures (a region in northern Romania and western Ukraine) is the primordial village (…) It is a complex of realities that converge to make you feel that you are in the primordial village here. The peasants of Maramures did not come from anywhere. You feel that they came directly from heaven to Maramures. In other countries you feel and know that people came from somewhere, but not here. Here, in Maramures, the primordial man is in his princely nobility, not primitive, in his beauty of high civilization„. In their book Stonehenge: The Indo-European Heritage, American professors Leon E. Stover and Bruce Kraig speak of Old Europe in the 5th millennium BC, which was located in what is now central Romania. In a book published in 1993, archaeologist and philologist Vere Gordon Childe, a professor at the University of Oxford, placed the Aryans’ birthplace in the Carpathian-Danubian region. Surprisingly, on 12th August 2013, Nicolae Ulieru, spokesperson for the Romanian Intelligence Service from 1990 to 1998, declared on Realitatea TV (the first news television in Romania): „Transylvania was the center of that traditional entity which, between 6500 – 3500 BC, made up the most important area of European culture. There are two books that relate to this fact. One book is called ‘Civilization and Culture,’ authored by a Lithuanian (Marija Gimbutas), who says that ‘Romania is what I called Old Europe, a cultural entity encompassed between 6500 – 3500 BC’. This year, in spring, a book by Constantin Daniel, a great Romanian orientalist, was published by Herald publishing house. I must emphasize that the author is of Jewish origin, a Jew much more patriotic than many Romanians. The book is called ‘The Mysteries of Zalmoxis’ and it asserts the following idea as its main premise: ‘all Greek myths that existed in classical times were of Thracian and Thracian-Getic origin, created by Thracians and inspired by Thracian spirituality’. Therefore, for us, Romanians, this entity of Transylvania is the nodal point from which we originate and to which we refer all the time„.
Regardless of the number of statements made by specialists from around the world, who have researched historical, archaeological and linguistic evidence, the Dacians remain hidden from mankind, their history being replaced with that of a tribal people „chosen” by the malevolent god Yahweh to rule the world. Referring to the Bucegi Mountains, geologist Marian Dumitrescu, a stone energy specialist, said: „foreigners have always known that there are incredible secrets there that can give them control over the world and peoples„. Also, in Secrets of the Earth – Volume III, Eugen Delcea noted: „At the end of March 2002, an anonymous NATO official clearly stated that the US does not want the ‘Old Europe’ in the organization, referring to Romania and Bulgaria (the country where the Thracians from south of the Danube had lived). This statement highlights a complex truth: the Westerners know very well where life and civilization started in Europe, what their roots are, but they don’t want to admit it and how ungrateful they are to the parents who gave birth to them, raised them and protected them when the sultans wanted to water their horses in the Church of Rome„. No matter how hard they try to hide the truth and to destroy the collective memory, national identity, traditions and history of the Dacians, „no storm, no invasion, no earthquake, no occupation, no blow, however painful and destructive, could shake the Romanians from Dacia. No one and nothing can tear us away from it„, as Ion Antonescu, the former leader of Romania between 1940 and 1944, stated. „We were born here, we are the first settled here and we will leave this place the last„, he added.
„Have the Dacians perished?„, rhetorically asked Romanian writer and philologist Bogdan-Petriceicu Hasdeu in his 1860 study. The answer can only be negative. We have already seen that today’s Romanians are not a people formed by the mixture of Dacians and Romans, but descendants of the Dacians, the first people of the world. Continuity in the Carpathian-Danubian-Pontic area has been noted by many researchers, both Romanian and foreign. Scholar Constantin Daicoviciu noted: „Ever since a human being set foot on Romanian soil – many thousands of years before the birth of Romania, on both sides of the Carpathians, the same people have lived with similar forms of life, speaking the same language, having the same beliefs„. Poet and archaeologist Cezar Bolliac noted the continuity of settlement in the territory of Romania in the form of an „uninterrupted series in the prehistoric civilization of Dacia, beginning from the polished stone age to Roman times„, In turn, historian and politician Nicolae Iorga acknowledged: „Besides those sown there are those raised; we are raised from the soil (…) Our sovereignty represents a solid historical creation, born from a great past, which lives beyond all the constitutions we have given ourselves, living until our era (…) The Dacian villages have only continued their peasant life – in the Romanian form – of the Thracian life„. Considered by the communist dictatorship as an anti-national poet, Lucian Blaga blamed in 1960 those who hide our true history: „Our archaeologists and historians tell us that our shepherd dresses approximately like the Dacian shepherd. The potters from some mountain villages (…) probably work the same way they did two or three thousand years ago. In general, all kinds of ways of being, the pace of life, the way of thinking, the way of behaving, various acts, from plowing to the almost ritual act of eating, typical of the peasant, give the impression of a style that has been solidified for thousands of years. We drew attention to some millennial characteristics of our incantations. Certain formulas must be thousands of years old„. In the issues 140-141 of the Us Thracians magazine from July-August 1986, Petre P. Panaitescu stated: „The Neolithic culture in Romania is the creation of our Pelasgian people (…) the Neolithic of Dacia is the creation of the people of this land„. French historian Albert Armand wrote in 1936: „This is one of the oldest peoples in Europe and the most beautiful historical example of continuity of nations, whether it is about the Thracians, the Getae or the Dacians. The inhabitants of the Romanian land have remained the same from the Neolithic era of polished stone until today, thus supporting, perhaps with a unique example in the history of the world, the continuity of a nation„. Although the Hungarians have long struggled to get their hands on Transylvania, fantasizing that they were the first inhabitants of the ancient land of the gods, in The Old and the New Dacia from 1791, the Hungarian historian Huszti Andras was forced to admit that „the Geto-Dacians were the oldest inhabitants of Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia, being very brave and unmatched in battle” and that „the descendants of the Geto-Dacians live today where their parents lived, speaking the language which their parents spoke in the past„. It seems that Romanians, especially in rural areas, have not completely forgotten their roots. In Nicolae Densusianu’s questionnaires, people from Mihaesti village in Arges county answered: „We did not come from anywhere, but found ourselves here„, while people from Cosmesti village in Galati county said the same thing: „We have been here since the beginning of the world„. And because evidence is needed, not just words, these are provided by a paleogenetic study conducted between 2003 and 2006, which demonstrates that, genetically speaking, today’s Romanians are the Dacians from the past, and the theory of Latinization is completely false. With the support of the University of Hamburg (Germany), Dr. Georgeta Cardos, a Romanian genetics specialist, compared the DNA of present-day Romanians with that from the bone tissue of 50 Dacians who lived in Romania five millennia ago. The tissues were collected from over 20 archaeological sites throughout the country. The data obtained demonstrated a clear genetic connection between the current population of Romania and that of 5,000 years ago, with the basic background proving the continuity of the Dacian population in the form of present-day Romanians. As an additional observation, residents of northern Romania have blue eyes and blonde or red hair and the same speech accent, while people in the southern half of the country have different physical characteristics, with darker skin color, brown or black eyes and hair ranging from chestnut to black. Without a doubt, the physical differences can be explained by the mixture of Dacians with migratory populations, especially those who settled in southern Romania. However, the genetic background of the Dacians has remained in today’s Romanians, regardless of the region where they live or the intermingling with other peoples. Therefore, just like Dr. Napoleon Savescu in the title of his 2002 book, Romanians can confidently say: „we are not the descendants of Rome„.
„The religious creations of the Thracians and the Geto-Dacians seem to have shared an unfortunate destiny… With the exception of a few precious pieces of information communicated by Herodotus about the mythic-ritual scenario of Zalmoxis, the information about the Thracian and Geto-Dacian religions is scarce and approximate„, Mircea Eliade bitterly noted. „Like the Celts, the priests and ascetics of the Thracians and Geto-Dacians did not trust writing„, he added. Indeed, it seems that Dacians used writing very rarely, most likely only by priests. This is absolutely logical. Writing was given to them by the gods, so only the mediators between the gods and humans could use it. Greeks and Romans noted many details about the Dacians but, unfortunately, the remaining writings are few and fragmentary, most of them passed on second or third-hand. They were edited by the Romanian Academy in two volumes, one comprising authors up to the 4th century, the other continuing until the dawn of the 2nd millennium. A small collection of these sources was compiled in 1939 by historian Gheorghe Popa-Lisseanu. At the end of the 19th century, Alexandru Papadopol-Calimah, former prefect of the city of Tecuci, Minister of Foreign Affairs during the reign of Alexandru Ioan Cuza and Minister of Cults and Public Instruction under King Carol I, discovered 282 authors who had referred to Dacia in their writings. Papadopol-Calimah began to publish his findings in 1872 in the Trajan’s Column magazine, founded and managed by Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, and continued for four years, producing 19 articles that were later included in a book entitled Lost Ancient Writings Concerning Dacia. The time span covered by the authors studied by Papadopol-Calimah is very large, ranging from the 6th century BC to the 13th century AD. No other European people outside the Greco-Roman world was written about as much as the Dacians: entire chapters in historical works, complete books, or more or less extensive references. This finding demonstrates that the ancient interest in the Dacian people was much greater than previously imagined. Among these authors there are famous figures such as Aristotle, Strabo, Hecataeus, Ovid, Tacitus, Plutarch, Pliny the Elder and the Younger, Criton, Dio Cassius and the emperors Trajan, Julian, Tiberius, Claudius and Alexander the Great. Comparing these hundreds of writings with the ones that have survived, we can see that over 90% of the information about the Dacians has been lost. Despite these gaps, we can still form an opinion about the primeval people of mankind.
For the ancients, the Dacians were tall, blonde, white-skined and blue-eyed. Quoting Greek philosopher and historian Dio Chrysostom from the first century BC, Byzantine historian Jordanes described them in the 6th century as warrior scholars who, between battles, engaged in philosophy and science. Dio Chrysostom also said that „the Getae are wiser than almost all barbarians and especially than the Greeks„. The father of history, Herodotus, called them „the bravest and most just of the Thracians„. They were indifferent to death, knowing that they would go to the kingdom of their god, Zamolxis. Soldiers went to battle shouting the name of the god and died smiling, with the name of the same god on their lips. A ritual to stimulate the courage of soldiers was the sanctification with water from the Danube; before the battle, each Dacian tasted the water of the sacred river. Greek historian Plutarch said that, in ancient times, the water of the Danube and the Nile was kept in gold vessels in the treasuries of the emperors as a sign of sovereignty and power. In Moral and Political Laws, Greek philosopher Pythagoras also referred to the moral values of the Dacians: „Travel to the Getae, not to give them laws, but to learn from them. In the land of the Getae the fields are without limits and all the lands are common. And among all the peoples, they are the wisest, says Homer” (Law 1143). Another great Greek philosopher, of Thracian origin, Plato, records in the Charmides dialogue a discussion between philosopher Socrates and politician Charmides, where Socrates recounts what a Thracian doctor taught him: „Zalmoxis, our king, who is a god, tells us that just as we should not try to care for the eyes without taking into account the head, neither can the head be cared for without taking into account the body. In the same way we must care for the body together with the soul, and that is why Greek doctors are not skilled in most diseases – because they do not know the whole that they have to care for. If this whole is sick, the part cannot be healthy because, as the doctor said, all good and bad things for the body and for man, in its entirety, come from the soul and flow from there like a spring, from head to eyes. Therefore, we must first and foremost heal the source of evil so that the head and the rest of the body can enjoy good health. Friend, he said, the soul is healed with charms. These charms are beautiful words that give birth to wisdom in souls„. In the 6th century work Getica, the Romanized historian Jordanes spoke of the Dacians in similarly appreciative terms, stating that the great priest Deceneus „instructed them in almost all branches of philosophy, for he was a skilled master in this. He taught them morality (…), instructed them in the physical sciences (…), taught them logic, making them mentally superior to other peoples (…) What a great pleasure it was for brave people to engage in philosophical doctrines when they had little respite from war. You could see one studying the poetry of the sky, another the properties of herbs and shrubs, another studying the growth and decrease of the Moon, another observing solar eclipses and how, through the rotation of the sky, the Sun, wanting to reach the eastern region, is brought back towards the western region„. These descriptions contradict the image of the barbaric, primitive Geto-Dacian that historians have been inoculating us with for some time. The Romans called the Dacians „cursed enemies and an unconquered people„, „an undefeated people” or „the untamed Getae„. Roman poet Ovid, who was exiled to the city of Tomis (today called Constanta, in the Dobrogea region of Romania) in 9 AD by Emperor Octavian, where he spent eight years among the Dacians, wrote that „there is no wilder race in the whole world than the Getae; yet even they wept at my sufferings„, calling them „the uncivilized Getae barbarians„. However, after Emperor Trajan’s victory in 106 AD, he was congratulated by Pliny the Younger in a letter for „your greatest, most beautiful and most important victory„. The Emperor even changed his name from Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus to Imperator Caesar Divi Nervae filius Nerva Traianus Optimus Augustus Germanicus Dacicus Parthicus, to highlight his victories against the Dacians, Parthians and Germans, the most important being, as Pliny the Younger emphasized, the one against Decebalus’ Dacians. The greatest proof of this is the way the Romans celebrated their victory, organizing gladiatorial fights for 123 days, in which 10,000 people and 11,000 wild animals were sacrificed. Not to mention Trajan’s Column, erected in Rome by the Roman emperor to celebrate his victory. Although defeated, the free Dacians did not give up and continued to raid against the Romans for a long time, until their complete withdrawal in 275.
Unfortunately, only a very small part of the ancient history of the Dacians has been preserved. From the little that has survived, however, we can understand why they were called „the bravest and most just among the Thracians„, „an undefeated people” or „the untamed Getae„. Here are a few examples:
– Jordanes, bishop of Ravenna in the 6th centuty, wrote in De Getarum origine et rebus gestis („Of the Origin and Deeds of the Getae”), quoting Gallo-Roman historian Pompeius Trogus, that Taunasis, a king of the Getae, defeated the king of the Egyptians, Vesosis, on the banks of the Phasis. Vesosis is a wrong translation of the name Sesotris, probably Senusret II, the fourth pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty, who ruled between 1897 and 1878 BC. After conquering the Ethiopians in the south and the Thracians in Europe, the pharaoh was defeated by the Geto-Dacians of Tanausis on the shores of the Black Sea, in present-day Georgia. The Egyptians were driven back to Egypt, where only the Nile and their fortifications prevented the Dacians from completely destroying the pharaoh’s army. On their way back home, part of the victorious army remained in the East, those Dacians being known from then on as Parthians. That is why the Parthians, like the Dacians, had the draco as their banner (shaped as a wolf’s head with a dragon’s body), and Decebalus, the last king of Dacia, corresponded with Pacorus, the king of the Parthians.
– In the Iliad, Homer mentioned the Thracians’ engagement in the Trojan War, which is believed to have taken place in the 12th century BC. Although he doesn’t give details about them, preferring to focus on the Greek gods and heroes, we learn the details of the war from the Epic Cycle, a writings collection belonging to ancient authors Protesilaos, Arctinus, Sophocles and Aeschylus, who had gathered their people’s prehistoric traditions for posterity. Here we find Telephus, the king of the Getae, performing feats of valor in the Trojan War. He comes to the aid of the Trojans, is wounded by Achilles and flees to heal his wounds. His son, Eurypylus, also comes to the aid of the Trojans, fights bravely causing great damage to the Greek camp, even killing Machaon, the famous Greek surgeon and one of the heroes of the Iliad, and then falls in battle. Referring to the Epic Cycle, Greek sophist Philostratus wrote in 193 AD that the battle of Troy between the Getae and the Greeks „was more fierce than all the battles that followed under Troy and all that were ever between barbarians and Greeks, for Telephus’ army was terrible and quick not only in its entirety, but also individually, being the brave sons of the Danube in Scythia. The Misians let the Greeks land, throwing arrows and spears from the shore with great fury. The Misians came from beyond the Danube; it is said that even the Mysian women fought on horseback against the Greeks like Amazons, and that Telephus’ wife, Hiera, commanded this cavalry of women… Protesilaus then says that Lady Hiera was also the highest-ranking woman and the most beautiful of all those known for their beauty. And yet, Homer does not speak of the brave Misians or their heroic deeds, so as not to have a woman more beautiful than Helen and a greater warrior than Achilles„. In Alea of Arcadia, the famous temple of Minerva Alea (the most beautiful and largest of all the temples of the Peloponnese), the battle of Telephus against Achilles was depicted on the fronton during the time of Pausanias. According to the Epic Cycle, Amazon Penthisilea also came to the aid of Troy, dying on the battlefield under Achilles’ blows. As he was stripping her of the armor he wanted to keep as a trophy, he was amazed by the beauty of the Amazon and began to cry bitterly. Penthisilea was from Thrace, as Arctinus claims. In fact, according to Herodotus, the land of the Amazons was in Scythia, beyond the mouths of the Danube, in the steppes north of the Black Sea, with the fierce fighters also being part of the Thracian people. In 174 AD, near the Kassotis fountain at Delphi, there could still be seen a building called Leskhe, in which a painting depicted Pentesilea as a young girl, with a Scythian bow and a leopard skin over her shoulders. The Epic Cycle also mentions other Amazons who came from the Black Sea and the Danube to help the Greeks when the Trojans of Priam and Hector were about to win.
– In The Passage of the Gauls from Europe to Asia, Demetrius of Byzantium wrote that around 600 BC the Cimmerians were driven by the Massagetae (both being Dacian tribes) from the shores of the Black Sea, so they fled and invaded part of Gaul. Many Gauls (also called Galatians) emigrated by fear of the Cimmerians. Those led by Sigovesus crossed the Rhine River and those led by Bellovesus reached Italy. Later, many Gallic settlements appeared on the Danube. In 280 BC, a large Gallic army left the Danube and attacked Macedonia and Thrace. In Romania, traces of the Gauls can be found in the names of local communities such as Galati (in Galati county), Galati (in Botosani county), Galateni (in Arges county) and Galateni Lake (in Ialomita county).
– A millennium and a half ago, in Roman and Universal History, Greek chronicler and biographer Hesychius of Miletus stated that in 657 BC, Byzas, the founder of Byzantium (called Istanbul today), fought against the Getae from the Balkans and Odrysses, the king of the Scythians. Odrysses attacked Byzantium, which only escaped because Phidalia, Byzas’ wife, sent „snake teeth” against Odrysses, probably a form of magic. Aristocritus also wrote about a war between the Byzantines and Ateas, the king of the Scythians. At the age of 95, Ateas was killed in a battle against Philip II of Macedon.
– As noted by Jordanes in Of the Origin and Deeds of the Getae, citing Pompeius Trogus, Cyrus the Great, the emperor of the First Persian Empire, started a fatal war against Thamiri / Tomyris, the queen of the Massagetae, around 530 BC. Herodotus said that, at first, Cyrus had asked the beautiful queen to marry him, a proposal which she refused. Thus, the Persian emperor tried to get the Massagetae’s territory by force. However, he was killed in battle, and his army suffered massive losses in a battle that Herodotus considered to be the fiercest in the ancient world. When it was all over, the queen decapitated Cyrus and kept his head in a vessel full of blood, a gesture that symbolized the quenching of the great Persian emperor’s thirst for blood. In Persica, Ctesias noted that Cyrus the Great was killed during an assault by the Derbicans, aided by the Scythians and Indians. The Babylonian priest Berossus claimed that Cyrus was killed in a battle against the Dahae archers of Dahistan (also of Thracian origin), while Xenophon, in Cyropaedia, contradicted them all, considering that the Persian king died in his capital from natural causes.
– The third ruler of the Achaemenid Empire (also known as the First Persian Empire), Darius I, was the first to dare to attack the land of the gods, organizing a military expedition in Dacia in 513 BC. After conquering the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, Darius spent eight years preparing for the expedition in Thrace. It was said that all the Thracian peoples submitted, except for the Geto-Dacians. In 416 BC, the historian Ctesias wrote in his History of Persia and India that Darius, the son of Hystaspes, had a large army of 800,000 soldiers. The king of the Scythians was named Scitarbas and his brother was Massa-Geta. Other historians argue that Idanthyrsus was leading the united Scythian tribes. Historian Gibbon said that „in Moldavia, King Darius received from the Scythian king a mouse, a frog, a ship and five arrows, an allegory that presents a terrifying image„, while other authors replaced the ship with a bird. Although Darius’ interpretation was optimistic, one of his close associates correctly translated the Dacians’ message: „If you do not turn into frogs and jump into the water, into birds – to be lost in the sky or into mice to go underground, then you will not escape our arrows„. The Persian emperor was not intimidated and fell into the Dacians’ trap. They made him chase them into a barren area, burning the fields and blocking the wells behind them, constantly harassing the Persian army, which had the opportunity to face not only the total absence of provisions and water, but also the winter. Enraged, Darius sent a letter to the leader of the Dacians asking him to fight or surrender. Idanthyrsus replied that the Dacians would not fight until the Persians desacrated the tombs of their ancestors. The Persian emperor did not dare to do this and continued to pursue the Dacians. After a month, the Persian army suffered heavy losses due to fatigue, hunger and disease. Thus, although he was not defeated in battle, Darius was forced to end a disastrous military campaign and withdraw from Dacian territory with his tail between his legs.
– In 335 BC, before embarking on his famous campaign in Greece, Egypt, Persia and India, Alexander the Great attacked Dacia, achieving what his father, Philip II of Macedon, had not dared to do (four years earlier, Philip II had defeated the Scythians led by Ateas in Dobrogea region, but did not have the courage to cross the Danube). After praying to the gods to forgive him for the sacrilege of stepping on holy ground, he crossed the Danube in the middle of the night, where he was met by a powerful army of 10,000 infantrymen and 4,000 cavalrymen, led by King Syrmos. The respectable British Egyptologist Arthur Weigall wrote about Alexander the Great’s expedition: „It was a bold adventure that could very well have ended his career from the beginning… (the expedition) was largely undertaken to be able to assert that he had crossed the great river, which had been like a barrier to the northern adventures of Philip and formed the accepted line between the known world of the Greeks and the unknown north. Alexander himself considered this to be of great importance, because on the shore of the great river (i.e. the Danube) he celebrated an impressive religious service, offering sacrifices to Zeus, Heracles and the divinity of the Danube„. Although taken by surprise by Alexander’s army, which appeared unexpectedly under cover of darkness, the Dacians did not get scared and fought fiercely against the invaders. However, they had to retreat to a fortified settlement about five and a half kilometers away. The Dacians took their women and children and left the fortress, preferring to head towards the mountains because, as Greek historian Arrian of Nicomedia noted in his Anabasis of Alexander, „the city was not well fortified„. The great conqueror Alexander did not dare to pursue them, but preferred to leave the territory of the gods as quickly as possible, on the same day, after looting the goods that the Dacians had not been able to carry with them and destroying the settlement „to the ground„. The heroic defense of the Dacians in the clash with the Macedonian army made a strong impression in the ancient world, with General Ptolemy considering it in his journal one of the most memorable moments of the era.
– The Dacians managed to take revenge on the Macedonians nine years later, punishing them for Alexander’s sacrilege. Zopyrion, the governor of Thrace or only of the Black Sea region, initiated a military expedition against the Scythians from the northern sea. Gallo-Roman Historian Pompey Trogue noted that „Zopyrion, whom Alexander the Great had left as governor of Pontus, considered it shameful to sit idly by and not undertake something himself„. At the mouth of the Hypanis River (Bug), he unsuccessfully besieged Olbia (Parutino), the Scythians from the north of the Black Sea putting up a fierce resistance. Zopyrion decided to abandon the siege and retreat, choosing to pass through Dacian territory on his return. When the 30,000 Macedonian soldiers reached the Danube, the Dacians attacked and completely destroyed them, with Zopyrion himself losing his life. „Zopyrion, commander of Thrace, while on an expedition against the Getae, was overwhelmed with the whole army when unexpected storms and hurricanes arose„, wrote Roman historian Quintus Curtius Rufus in his Histories of Alexander the Great from the first century AD. Chroniclers say that Alexander the Great was deeply saddened by the news of Zopyrion’s defeat, but chose to continue his expedition in the East, avoiding returning to Dacia to punish his governor’s killers.
– After the death of Alexander the Great, Lysimachus became the king of the Thracians who were neighbors of Macedonia, that small part of the nation which was already subject to Philip and Alexander. After conquering the Odrisians, Lysimachus attacked the Getae led by Dromichaites. Being defeated, the king of the Thracians fled, while his son, Agathocles, became their prisoner. Lysimachus returned with a larger army after eight years, but was again defeated and even captured. Taken to Helis, the royal seat of Dromichaites, Lysimachus was forced to make a shameful peace with the Dacian king, ceding him the territory across the Danube. Moreover, he gave his own daughter to the victor as his wife. According to some historians, Lysimachus became a prisoner and his son, Agathocles, made a treaty with Dromichaites to free his father.
– In 82 BC Burebistas began his reign, unifying all the Dacian tribes into the Kingdom of Dacia. The unification was completed around 59 BC, when Burebistas began a military campaign against the Celts from the Middle Danube, in the Pannonian Basin. He then liberated the cities on the Black Sea coast that were under Roman occupation. From there, he organized expeditions to Macedonia and Illyria, becoming „the first and greatest of the kings of Thrace„, as a Greek inscription calls him. The center of the Dacian state was in the Orastie Mountains, where Burebistas built fortresses such as Costesti, Blidaru, Capalna and Sarmizegetusa Regia, the latter eventually becoming the capital of the kingdom. The Sinaia plates claim that the name of the Dacian king was Boerovisto or Boeroviseto, and he was also nicknamed Visica („The Cat”). He was a great enlightened leader who spoke with the gods, his parents were named Remio and Coeza and his wife, with whom he had six children, was named Genucla. In Geography, Strabo wrote that Burebistas „had Deceneus as his assistant, a wizard who had wandered for a long time in Egypt, learning some prophetic signs there, which he used to interpret the will of the gods. Moreover, he had been considered a god for some time, as we showed when we spoke of Zamolxis. As proof of the obedience the Getae gave him, it is the fact that they allowed themselves to be persuaded to uproot their vineyards and live without wine„. During the war between Julius Caesar and Pompey Magnus, Burebistas allied with the latter, who was subsequently defeated and killed in Egypt. After this victory, Caesar planned a campaign against Dacia, but he was killed in 44 BC, as was Burebistas a month and a half later. The Sinaia plates claim that the high priest Deceneus was the one who betrayed the great Dacian king by handing him over to the Romans. It was also because of Deceneus’ intrigues that Dapyx, the youngest son of Burebistas, committed suicide. The same plates state that, after the king’s death, his country was divided among his five surviving sons. Deceneus also received a portion of Dacia, becoming the king of Transylvania.
– According to the history of Emperor Octavian, written by himself, Julius Caesar was preparing an expedition against the Dacians led by Berebistu (Burebistas). The leader of the expedition was to be Octavian, whom Caesar sent ahead to wait for him at Apollonia. Octavian placed a strong fleet on the Danube and permanent camps on its banks, to stop the Dacian raids. In these incursions, three Dacian chiefs and many soldiers were killed. Amazed by Octavian’s power, all the tribes of the Scythians sent envoys to him twice to gain his and the Roman people’s friendship. However, the emperor modified the truth, praising himself to underline his „greatness”. In reality, taking advantage of Julius Caesar’s death, the Dacians crossed the Danube and invaded the Roman provinces, devastating and occupying Macedonia. The Roman Senate trembled with fear and gathered a large army to repel them. Later, Octavian did everything possible to conclude an alliance with the Dacians, to make sure they would not become his enemies. Historian Marcus Antonius, quoted by Suetonius, wrote that Octavian wanted Cotiso, the king of the Getae, as a husband for his daughter, Julia, and at the same time he wanted to marry the daughter of the king himself: „Octavian promised Julia first to his son, Antonius, then to Cotiso, the king of the Getae, and at the same time asked for the king’s daughter in marriage for himself„. About Cotiso, whose kingdom was in the area between Banat and Oltenia mountains, the ancient author Florus narrated that he used to attack Roman garrisons south of the Danube when the river was frozen, and the Sinaia plates suggest that he was one of the greatest heroes of Dacia.
– Taking advantage of the civil war that broke out at the death of the Roman emperor Nero in 68 – 69 AD, the Dacians allied with the Sarmatians and invaded Moesia. Rejected by the Romans, they returned in the following year, allied with the Sarmatians and the Bastarnae. In 87 AD, Emperor Domitian was forced to came personally on the front line in Moesia. In 87 AD, Domitian sent prefect Cornelius Fuscus to attack Sarmizegetusa, the capital of the Dacians. He crossed the Danube on a bridge of boats with five or six legions and was defeated at Tapae by the Dacians led by Diurpaneus. Two years before, the same leader of the Dacian army had defeated and beheaded Oppius Sabinus, the governor of Moesia. Fearing the Roman reprisals, the Dacian king, Duras, gave his throne to Diurpaneus, who had already made a name for himself in battles. On this occasion, the new king changed his name to Decebalus. The following year, Decebalus faced another Roman army led by General Tettius Iulianus, also at Tapae. This time the Romans won, but due to the difficulties encountered by their army, Emperor Domitian was forced to conclude a shameful peace treaty with Decebalus. For the first time in its history, the Roman Empire had to pay tribute to the Dacians. Saint Isidore of Seville (560 – 636), one of the Western Fathers of Christianity, wrote: „Rome itself, the conqueror of all peoples, had to serve in submission and receive the yoke of Getic triumph„. This humiliating situation was one of the reasons why Emperor Trajan began an expedition against the Dacians, as the Roman historian Dio Cassius recorded: „After a stay in Rome for some time, he undertakes an expedition against the Dacians. Thinking of their deeds, he was saddened by the tribute that the Romans had to pay every year, and seeing how the power and arrogance of the Dacians continued to grow„. Taking advantage of Roman money and engineers, Decebalus equipped and trained his army and initiated a vast program of civil and military constructions, especially in the area of the Orastie Mountains. At the same time he began to establish relations with peoples hostile to the Roman Empire. The Sinaia plates have new information about Decebalus, stating that Diegio and Vezino were his children, and his sister was named Geopyr („Jewel”). She fought alongside men, at the head of the Dacian women (like true Amazons), against Trajan’s Romans.
– In 101 AD, Emperor Trajan entered Dacia with 150,000 soldiers. He defeated Decebalus at Tapae and, in the following year, at Nicopolis and Adamclisi. Decebalus was forced to make a crushing peace treaty for Dacia, which required him to demolish the cities walls, to give up a number of territories and to give up his independence in foreign policy. However, both sides saw this peace only as an armistice. After Apollodoros of Damascus, the most famous engineer of the time, finished building a bridge over the Danube in 105 AD, the Roman legions used it to invade Dacia again. Abandoned by his allies and attacked through Banat, Olt Valley and Moldavia, Decebalus was forced to retreat to the capital, Sarmizegetusa. Despite heroic resistance, the fortress was conquered and destroyed. The Dacian king managed to leave the fortress, probably through an underground tunnel, attempting to continue resistance within the country, but he was pursued by Roman cavalry and surrounded. To avoid falling alive into the hands of the enemies, the king of the Dacians committed suicide. According to the Sinaia plates, Decebalus took his life in the Jiu Valley. As a result of this defeat, a part of his territory was transformed into a Roman province, which was named Dacia Felix („Happy Dacia”). Trajan built a new capital, called Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, immortalized his victory on a column in Rome and on a triumphal monument in Adamclisi, Dobrogea, while he saved the Roman Empire from bankruptcy with the gold captured from the Dacians.
– Official history states that due to repeated attacks of the free Dacians, Emperor Marcus Aurelius decided to withdraw his Roman troops from Dacia Felix in 271 AD. However, 13 years earlier, Decebalus’ successor, general Regalianus, declared the independent state of Dacia, breaking away from the Roman Empire. To defend the borders of Dacia as effectively as possible, Regalianus formed alliances with his neighbors in the northwest, north and east, such as the Goths, the Heruli or the Tarvingians, peoples always prepared for an invasion into the Roman provinces on the borders of Dacia. He then coordinated and synchronized rebellions in the provinces of Raetia, Gallia, Britannia and Egypt, so that the power of the Roman Empire could not be concentrated on Dacia. King Regalianus established his capital in Sarmizegetusa, created his own currency, which replaced the Roman denarius (as confirmed by the American historian Paul Mac Kendrick in The Dacian Stones Speak). Ancient historians claim that Regalianus’ Dacian state had a well-crystallized language and a monotheistic religion, Zalmoxianism. Roman Emperor Gallienus had no choice but to accept Dacia’s autonomy, waiting for the right moment to remove Regalianus. He was killed in August 268 at the instigation of his Roxolani brothers, who had an unfavorable view on autonomy. The Romans returned to Dacia after his death, but three years later Emperor Aurelius decided to withdraw his troops because the Dacians continued to fight against the invaders. The Sinaia plates mention the most important Dacian leader after Decebalus, suggested in the medieval Germanic poem The Song of the Nibelungs as Ramunc and Sigeher. In the Sinaia texts, the liberator of Dacia, the one who initiated the return to old traditions, is called Romanh, Romansie, Lomanh and So Lomonius („The Bright One”). Since Regalianus’ story is identical to that of So Lomonius, we can assume that they are one and the same person. In addition, Regalianus does not seem like a Dacian name, but rather one given to the liberator of Dacia by the Romans. Therefore, as the texts discovered in Sinaia suggest, his real name could be Romanh or Romansie.
Although history falsifiers try to inoculate us with the absurd idea that Dacia disappeared after Trajan’s conquest, from that moment on the Romanian people being formed, the true history shows us that the name Dacia was preserved until 1859 when the great powers decided that the Dacians should be called Romanians and considered themselves descendants of ancient Rome, to forget that they are the oldest people in the world. At that time it was also established that the country’s name should be Romania, to the detriment of the one used for thousands of years, Dacia. Unfortunately for these falsifiers, a few pieces of evidence have survived that attest that the three so-called Romanian regions (Moldavia, Transylvania and Wallachia), although separated by borders for much of history, were considered parts of Dacia. In a map from 1542, engraved on a wooden plate by the Saxon Johannes Honter and published in his personal atlas called Rudimenta Cosmographica, today’s Romania appears under the name Dacia. The same name appears in a map made by Ortelius in 1595 and in an atlas from 1720. Giovanni Battista Castaldo, Marquis of Cassano, commander of the Habsburg imperial troops who occupied Transylvania in 1551, became involved the following year in the removal of Stefan Rares from Moldavia and Mircea Ciobanul from Wallachia to bring the three Dacian provinces under direct control or at least under imperial influence. To this end, he struck a medal with his face, noting on the reverse „Svabactae Daciae restitvtori optimo„, which means „the best restorer of shattered Dacia”. Polish Stanislaw Sarnicki claimed that Despot Voda („The Voivode Despot”) planned to reunite the kingdom of the Dacians. Hungarian prince Sigismund Bathory tried to impose his rule in Moldavia and Wallachia, as well as in Transylvania, „in a word, the entire Dacia„, as his historian, Janos Baranyai Decsi, noted. In the treaty concluded in 1595, Emperor Rudolf II allowed him not only to be the prince of Transylvania, but also „of both Dacias„. In 1919, historian Nicolae Iorga noted: „Contemporary sources say that Bathory considered himself the king of the three provinces reunited in a Dacia that would not have been Romanian, but precisely against the Romanian national idea, a Dacia that, if it had remained, our Dacia would never have arisen and we would never have lived to see it as it is now„. In Turkish, Austrian and Hungarian chronicles, voivode Michael the Brave, who reunited the three Dacian provinces in 1600, is called „Restitutor Daciae” („Restorer of Dacia”). Other documents record him as „Malus Dacus” („The Evil Dacian”). In two letters from 1600 addressed to him, the leading representatives of senior imperial officials in Bohemia call him „supremo Exercitus in partibus Dacicis ductori et praefecto” („leader and commander of the army in those parts of Dacia”), while Wallachia is „Thraciae et Daciae partibus” („part of Dacia and Thrace”). In a letter from 1603, Johannes Jezernyczky addressed a request to Emperor Rudolf II, telling him a story that happened „after Michael the Voivode regained Dacia, submitting it to Your Majesty’s scepter„. A few years later, the French historian Jacques Augustin de Thou used the name Dacia for each of the three so-called Romanian regions. In the second half of the 17th century, German Johannes Bisselius wrote that after the submission of Transylvania in October 1599, Michael the Brave „sent the keys of Dacia to the emperor as a sign of complete submission„. In December 1627, the Hungarian Cardinal Peter Pazmany recorded the explicit declaration of the Transylvanian prince Gabriel Bethlen, who wanted to be „rex Daciae” („king of Dacia”), incorporating Moldavia and Wallachia under the authority of the Ottoman Porte. Dimitrie Cantemir, the ruler of Moldavia in 1693 and in 1710 – 1711, wrote not only The Description of Moldavia, but also The History of Ancient and Modern Dacia, a book that disappeared miraculously, like many others that contain the truth about the Dacians. In the city of Iasi, at Golia Monastery, there is the tomb of Sultana Racovita from 1753, wife of ruler Michael Racovita. On her tomb’s marble plaque, one can read:
„I am neither local nor from Dacia
My Byzantium, the mother of glorious men, is my homeland.
I was born of Georgios’ wife and my mother Eufrosina.
My name is Sultana, short-lived,
And I was the wife of Michael Racovita,
The wise ruler of the Dacians and Mysiens.„
In an old church in the courtyard of the Metropolitan Cathedral of Iasi, one of the daughters of Grigore Ghica, the ruler of Moldavia and Wallachia, is buried. On her tombstone from 1738 it is written:
„Here lies underground after her death
The shining princess, noble Smaranda,
The daughter of the pious hegemon of all Dacia,
Ruler Grigore Ghica, the leader of the Byzantines
For both the splendor of the nation and piety.„
During the revolution of 1821, the revolutionary leader Tudor Vladimirescu asked in a letter addressed to his rival, Alexander Ypsilantis, the leader of the Greek Etaireia: „What do the Dacians have to gain from the Greeks? What do the Dacians have in common with the Greeks?„. In 1859, the Great Powers allowed the unification of Moldavia and Wallachia, imposing the adoption of the name Romania instead of Dacia. Ruler Alexandru Ioan Cuza (anglicised as Alexander John Cuza) had no choice but to accept this compromise, considering that territorial unity was more important than the name of the country. The adoption of this name was an easy one, considering that the Dacians also called themselves „rumâni / râmâni”. These names have absolutely nothing to do with Rome, as history falsifiers would have us believe, but come from Romanh, Romansie, Lomanh, So Lomonius or Regalianus, the liberator of Dacia, who reintroduced to the Dacians in 258 AD the old religion, prior to the Zamolxianism, based on the cult of the Sun. Archaeologists have discovered traces of this cult throughout the territory of Dacia, even from the Stone Age. At the global level, Enlil’s group of deities was associated with the Sun, while Enki’s was associated with the Moon. The Akkadians also called Enlil Ramman, a name adopted by the Indians as Rama / Ram in the Ramayana epic and by Zoroastrianism as Raman. One of the most important Dacian tribes adopted the name of this deity and its members were known throughout the ancient world as Rami, Ramni, Ramani, Rahmani, Arimani, Arimaspi or Arimi. The liberator of Dacia also took the name of his deity, in a modified form. Similarly, his people, who returned to the old tradition, adopted names such as Rami, Râmâni or Rumâni (especially in Wallachia, also known as the Rumanian Country), in addition to Dacians. In The Chronicles of the Land of Moldavia, Moldavian chronicler Grigore Ureche recalled that „we descend from Râm„, a name that does not indicate Rome, but rather the deity Ram / Rama / Raman. This is why the Dacians easily adopted Christianity in the 9th century AD, as the biblical Jesus and Raman were one and the same deity.
The brave deeds of the Dacians continued even after the expulsion of the Romans, demonstrating the continuity of the oldest people in the world. Invaded by numerous nations and even led at times by foreigners, the Dacians showed their bravery, achieving some of the most important victories in world history, just as they did in Antiquity. Here are some of them:
– In 1185, the Wallachian brothers Ivan and Peter Asen from the Haemus Mountains (in Bulgaria) organized a rebellion against the Byzantine Empire. Initially, the Wallachian-Bulgarian army was defeated. However, with the help of the Cumans, the Wallachian brothers returned and initiated a large-scale campaign of looting in Thrace, forcing the Byzantine emperor to organize a new military expedition against them. The Byzantine army was surprised in a pass by the rebels, and even the emperor himself nearly lost his life there. This victory strengthened the position of the Asenids, who remained lords over the country between the Danube and the Balkans. The third brother, Kaloyan, extended the borders of the state he ruled, obtaining official recognition both from Byzantium and from the Pope. Thus, the Wallachians succeeded in creating a state right next to the largest empire of the time, the Byzantine Empire.
– In 1323, Basarab I, the ruler of Wallachia, asisted Bulgarian king Michael Shishman in his fight against the Byzantine Empire. On 28th July 1330, the Wallachian voivode fought again alongside the Bulgarian king at Velbuzd, this time against the Serbian king Stefan Decanski, one of the allies of the Hungaryan King Charles Robert of Anjou. Determined to dethrone the rebel Basarab, the Hungarian king invaded Wallachia with an army of 30,000 knights, much larger than the army of the Wallachian Dacians. After the Hungarian army conquered Severin and burned Curtea de Arges, diseases and lack of food, caused by the land’s devastation by Basarab, forced Charles Robert to retreat. Upon his return, on 9th November 1330, in the pass of Posada, Basarab launched an attack against the Hungarians, who lost thousands of knights on the first day of the battle. The massacre lasted four days, almost all Hungarians being killed at Posada in the most shameful defeat in Hungary’s history. King Charles Robert was saved only after he changed his clothes with a member of his personal guard, „whom the Vlachs cruelly killed, believing him to be the king„, as the Hungarian monarch himself noted. Hungary’s dream of reaching the Black Sea had ended forever and Basarab I reigned on the throne of Wallachia for 42 years.
– In 1389, Mircea the Elder, ruler of Wallachia and great-grandson of Basarab I, offered military support to the Serbian prince Lazar in the Battle of Kosovo against the Turks. Although the Christians seemed to have a chance of victory, even killing Sultan Murat, his son, Bayezid the Thunderbolt, turned the initial retreat into a brilliant victory. Expecting revenge from the Ottomans, Mircea consolidated the Danube line by building a fortress in Giurgiu and fortifying the one at Turnu. On 10th December 1389 he made an alliance treaty with the Pole king Wladyslaw Jagiello and one with the Hungarian sovereign Sigismund on 17th March 1390. After the conquest of Bulgaria in 1393, Bayezid decided to invade Wallachia. After capturing Silistra, the Turks crossed the Danube and occupied Turnu, then advanced towards Arges. On 10th October 1394, the confrontation between the Wallachians and the Ottomans took place at Rovine, a harsh and bloody battle in which voivode Mircea emerged victorious. This is how the great poet Mihai Eminescu described the fight in the Letter III poem:
„And the old man barely left… What a commotion, what a turmoil!
The forest boiled with noise and weapons and trumpets,
And at its green foot, thousands of long-haired heads,
Thousands of shiny helmets come out of the dark shadow;
The riders fill the field and swarm after a sign
And their wild horses they hit with wooden ladders,
On their hooves, they take the face of the black soil in a rush,
Long spears sparkle in the Sun, bows stretch in the wind,
And like clouds of brass and like the roar of stones,
Darkening the horizon, arrows come from everywhere,
Whistling like a storm and like the splash of rain…
The field roars with the sound of trotting and battle cry.
In vain the emperor shouts like a lion in frenzy,
The shadow of death spreads bigger and bigger;
In vain he raises the green flag towards his army,
For it is engulfed in destruction, both in front and in the flanks,
For the long battle lines are thinning and wavering;
The Asabii fall like scattered clusters on the plain,
Pedestrians fall on their knees, horses topple over,
As the arrows pour in waves, whistling and striking front and back,
Like the icy wind and frost, it seems to them that the sky is falling…
Mircea himself leads the dreadful storm of battle,
That comes, comes, comes, crushing everything in its path;
Horsemen thunder through the pagan ranks like a tall wall of spears,
Breaking through their scattered formations;
The enemy’s lines scatter and flee,
And victorious, the country’s flags wave triumphantly,
Like a devastating flood, like a turbulent sea –
Within an hour, the pagan army is scattered like chaff in the wind.
They throw their steel hail towards the Danube,
And behind them, the valiant Romanian army extends.„
Although Mircea’s victory was decisive, he could not stop the much larger Ottoman army from advancing, so the Wallachians retreated towards Arges, where they were defeated. Nevertheless, due to the victory at Rovine, Mircea the Elder became the first European to emerge from a confrontation with the Ottoman Empire with his head up.
– After refusing to pay tribute to the Ottomans, taking advantage of their habit of not waging war in winter, Vlad the Impaler, ruler of Wallachia and the grandson of Mircea the Elder, put the entire left bank of the Danube through fire, sword and stakes. His chroniclers mentioned 1350 Turks impaled at Oblucitza and Nevosi, 6840 at Dracsani, Cartal and Diapotamia, 630 at Turtucaia, 6414 at Giurgiu, 1460 at Rovine, 749 at Novigrad and Sistov and 210 at Marotinu. In a mixture of anger and horror, Sultan Mehmed II, also known as „the Conqueror”, ordered the gathering of the largest Muslim army up to that point, consisting of 250,000 fighters, according to the chronicler Chalcocondyles. Balbi, the Venetian ambassador to Istanbul, noted that Vlad had an army of maximum 30,000 soldiers, while Petrus Thomasio wrote that the Wallachians had only 22,000 warriors. Facing a superior army (only numerically), Vlad applied the old Dacian tactic of harassment: laying waste to the land, poisoning the wells and attacking the Turkish detachments sent for food. On the night of 17th – 18th June 1462, Vlad the Impaler showed unique courage in human history, inspired by the tactics of the Thracian Spartacus. He and his best soldiers disguised themselves in Turkish clothing, infiltrated the Ottoman camp and, under cover of darkness, slaughtered the Anatolian spahis. Their target was the sultan’s tent, but unfortunately, Mehmed was not sleeping in his tent that night. Vlad and his fighters quickly retreated, leaving behind an agonizing Ottoman camp. In the final battle of Chilia, the Wallachian ruler crushed an entire Turkish army, with Ottoman losses reaching 50,000 men. Leading an army devastated by Valachs, hunger, thirst and disease, the Sultan decided to retreat before losing the rest of his troops. Following this victory, Vlad crushed the army of his stepbrother, Radu the Handsome, who had been left by Mehmed as the ruler of Wallachia. Radu managed to flee, but 30,000 Turks were not as fortunate as him.
– In 1467, as Hungary sought a ruler who would represent its interests on the throne of Moldavia, King Matthias Corvinus led an army of 40,000 cavalry into the territory ruled by Stephen the Great, Vlad the Impaler’s cousin. On 19th November, the Hungarians devastated the borough of Trotus, followed by Bacau and Roman. On 15th December, with only 12,000 soldiers, Stephen the Great besieged Roman, the camp site of the Hungarian army, setting the town ablaze from all sides. After violent battles, the Hungarians began to retreat in disarray, with their king being seriously wounded by a three-tipped arrow and a spear. Only the indecision of the vornic Isaia, who failed to attack where Stephen had ordered him to do so, helped Matthias Corvinus to remain uncaptured and reach Hungary with the remnants of his army. The following year, Stephen the Great went to Transylvania and destroyed the Hungarian troops there, demonstrating that a true Dacian sat on the throne of Moldavia.
– After Stephen the Great’s ally, Tepelus Voda, ascended to the throne of Wallachia, Sultan Mehmed II realized that he was on the verge of losing his influence in the Dacian lands. Remembering what happened to him just a few years ago, when he was defeated by Vlad the Impaler, the Sultan sent an enormous army to Moldavia, numbering nearly 120,000 men, led by Suleiman the Magnificent. Learning of the Turkish plans, Stephen asked for help from his Christian neighbors, gathering his 40,000 Moldovan soldiers along with 1,800 Hungarian cavalry and 5,000 Szeklers from Transylvania. Then, following the old Dacian custom, he devastated everything in the attackers’ path, slowing their advance. On 10th January 1475, in the swamps around the city of Vaslui, Stephen the Great launched a frontal attack on the enormous Turkish army, while a detachment hidden in nearby woods swooped in from behind, trapping the Ottomans. Gripped by panic, the Turks began to trample one another in hopes of escaping alive and the battle soon turned into a chase, marked by tens of thousands of casualties. The Pole chronicler Jan Dlugosz noted: „very few Turks found salvation through fleeing, for even those who fled and reached the Danube were killed there by the Moldavians, who had faster horses, or drowned by the waves. Almost all Turkish prisoners, except for the most prominent ones, were impaled. The bodies of the killed were burned and a few piles of their bones can still be seen today as eternal testimony to such a significant victory. Stephen the Great’s entire army became very rich from the loot taken from the Turks, gold, silver, purple, horses and other precious objects„. The greatest defeat of Islam by a Christian army led Pope Sixtus IV to appoint Stephen the Great „the prince of Christianity” and to write to him: „Your deeds accomplished with wisdom and courage against the unbelieving Turks, our enemies, have brought so much celebrity to your name that you are on everyone’s lips and praised by all„. After the Vaslui disaster, Sultan Mehmed himself came to Moldova with an army of 160,000 soldiers. The first battle, at Paraul Alb – Razboieni, was won by the Ottomans on 26th July 1476 and Stephen was forced to retreat. The Sultan advanced towards Suceava, but he failed to conquer the city because of hunger, plague, the stubborn resistance of the citizens and the blows dealt by Stephen’s maneuvering army. Mehmed II was forced to leave Moldavia and retreat across the Danube. An eyewitness noted that „the Sultan left the country with his troops without taking a single fortress and without causing any other damage to Moldavia than the loot he brought with him, and Stephen-Voda emerged from the mountains and rode bravely throughout his entire country„.
– The 47-year reign of Stephen the Great was marked by countless battles (most of them victories) against the Turks, Tatars, Hungarians, Poles and Wallachians who were subject to the Turks. After an unsuccessful siege of Suceava, Pole Jan I Olbracht decided to return home with his 100,000 soldiers. Stephen the Great pursued the attackers with 40,000 soldiers and caught up with them „near the Cosmin Forest„. There, he ordered his army to surround the forest and cut down the trees, leaving only enough to be toppled. On 26th October 1497, Stephen trapped the Polish army in a vice, crushing it almost completely under the trees. Those who managed to escape were pursued to the border with Poland and killed at Lentesti and Cernauti. Stephen even sent a corps of his army against a detachment of Mazurian riders who had come to the aid of the Poles. Leaving tens of thousands dead bodies on Dacian soil, Poland suffered one of its greatest defeats in its medieval history.
– On 13th November 1594, Michael the Brave, the ruler of Wallachia, initiated the fight against the Turks. He besieged Giurgiu, which resisted his army, but the Ottomans were crushed at Harsova, Silistra, and Targul de Floci. At the same time, Aron Voda, the prince of Moldavia, was massacring all the Turks in the city of Iasi. The Sultan sent an army of about 40,000 soldiers towards Wallachia, led by Serdar Ferhad Pasha, whom he inexplicably replaced at the last minute with the Grand Vizier Koca Sinan Pasha just before crossing the Danube. Michael the Brave had only managed to gather around 8,000 soldiers, to whom 2,000 Hungarians and 200 Cossacks were added. On 23rd August 1595, at Calugareni, near Giurgiu, Michael achieved an astonishing victory against the Ottomans, with Sinan Pasha himself on the verge of losing his life. Just like at Rovine, the Wallachian Dacians won the battle but were forced to retreat due to the numerical superiority of the Ottomans, who ultimately occupied Wallachia. After Sigismund Bathory joined Michael with an army of 23,000 soldiers, the Turks were defeated at Giurgiu, in the battle between 15th and 20th October 1595.
– Although they were allies against the Turks, the relations between Michael the Brave and Sigismund Bathory cooled over time. When Sigismund was replaced by Cardinal Andras Bathory, who made peace with the Turks, Michael penetrated Transylvania with an army of almost 20,000 soldiers, consisting of Wallachians, Szeklers, mercenaries and Balkan outlaws, supported by Rudolf II (Holy Roman Emperor, also king of Bohemia, king of Hungary and prince of Transylvania) and his general, Albanian Giorgio Basta. In October 1599, Michael achieved a resounding victory at Selimbar against Andrew Bathory, who was forced to flee and later caught by the Szekelys and beheaded in a woodcutter’s cabin.
– In April 1877, Romania and Russia formed an alliance against the Ottoman Empire. The Russo-Turkish War started disastrously for the Tsarist army, which suffered heavy losses at Plevna on 8th and 18th July. On 20th August, the Romanian army, commanded by Prince Carol I, crossed the Danube on the bridge at Corabia and headed towards Plevna, delivering the Ottoman Empire its heaviest blow up to that point. General Osman Pasha, wounded and surrounded, surrendered unconditionally and handed his sword to Romanian officer Mihail Cerchez, a gesture that was refused until Carol I arrived. After the victories at Plevna, Grivita I and II, Rahova, Smardan and Vidin, the other Turkish fortifications in Bulgaria fell one by one before the Russo-Romanian army, commanded by Carol I. In 1881 he was crowned king of Romania, placing on his forehead a crown cast from the metal of one of the Turkish cannons captured at Grivita on 30th August 1877. He added Dobrogea to Romania (made of at that time only of Moldavia and Wallachia) in 1878 and the Quadrilateral in 1913, but it was his nephew, Ferdinand I, who reunited ancient Dacia in 1918.
– Romanians showed bravery also in the wars that followed. In World War I, after several heavy defeats, they won important battles against the Germans and Austro-Hungarians, such as those at Marasti, Marasesti and Oituz. At the end of the war, in 1918, Romania regained its old territories, Transylvania, Banat, Bukovina and Bessarabia, thus completing Michael the Brave’s Dacia. In World War II, Romania fought alongside the Germans to recover the territories stolen by the Soviets, Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina and Hertsa Region. After the removal from power of Marshal Ion Antonescu, Romania, led by King Michael, turned against Germany, participating in the liberation of Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Romanians also liberated Hungary in 1919, removing Bela Kun’s Bolshevik regime from Budapest. As a sign of gratitude, Hungarians still try to steal Transylvania, forgetting that „without opinca (a Romanian peasant’s sandal), Budapest would be in Siberia„, as it was written on a banner hung by three young Bucharest residents on the fence of the Hungarian Cultural Center in 2011.
Although at certain points in history the Dacians were led by foreigners or native people subject to foreigners, they never accepted the yoke of oppression and often organized rebellions and, later, revolutions. Among the most well-known are the Bobalna uprising of 1437 – 1438, the peasant war led by Gheorghe Doja in 1514, the revolt of Horea, Closca and Crisan in 1784, Tudor Vladimirescu’s revolution in 1821, the revolution of 1848, the Flamanzi uprising of 1907, the Tatarbunar revolt of 1924 and the revolution of 1989. Between 1949 and 1962, over 100 peasant uprisings broke out in Romania alone. If we consider the revolts during the Roman rule period, along with the multitude of wars over the last millennium, the fierce desire for freedom of the Dacians, who were transformed overnight into Romanians in 1856, emerges. However, to truly know the first people in the world, we must look back to prehistoric times, where they are often mentioned under other names.
We know the Pelasgians were the first human race on Earth, who spread from Dacia to the entire surface of the Earth. Those who stayed in their country of origin were called Dacians, while those who migrated became Thracians. In Antiquity they were described as tall, blonde, with white skin and blue eyes. Many Latin sources say that the Roman emperors Octavian, Domitian and Honorius, who waged fierce wars with the Dacians in northern Danube and Pannonia, defeated the giants. Therefore, the tall Thracians / Pelasgians were called giants or titans by the rest of the peoples, who had an average height. These giants who ruled the Earth from the earliest times are encountered in the myths of most peoples. For example, Romanian legends say that in ancient times, the jidovi or giants lived here, very gentle beings, over two meters tall, with white skin, blue or green eyes and blonde or red hair. The evidence that these „giants” originated from Dacia is found in the Old Testament. During the Exodus from Egypt, Moses sent spies to Canaan, the land promised to the Jews by god Yahweh. The spies returned frightened because of the giants they saw there: „And they told him, and said, We came unto the land whither thou sentest us, and surely it floweth with milk and honey; and this is the fruit of it. Nevertheless the people be strong that dwell in the land, and the cities are walled, and very great: and moreover we saw the children of Anak there” (Numbers 13:27-28). When Caleb, one of the spies, proposed an attack against the inhabitants of Canaan, the others replied: „We be not able to go up against the people; for they are stronger than we (…) and all the people that we saw in it are men of a great stature. And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which come of the giants: and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight” (Numbers 13:32-34). Deuteronomy also mentions „the sons of Anak„: „The Emims dwelt therein in times past, a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims; Which also were accounted giants, as the Anakims; but the Moabites call them Emims” (2:10-11). In the Catholic Bible we can find here the Rephaim, who disappeared without explanation from the King James Bible: „Formerly the Emim lived there, a people strong and numerous and tall like the Anakim; like them they were considered Rephaim. It was the Moabites who called them Emim„. Likewise in the Orthodox Bible: „and these were reckoned among the Rephaim, as the sons of Anak„. In ancient times, the Carpathian Mountains were also known as Ripha. If we remove the „im” ending, which indicates the plural, we get not only a name almost identical to that of Carpathians, but also that of the Dacian tribe Repha. The memory of this Dacian tribe can be found both in the name of Rafa village in Vrancea county, at the foot of the Carpathian / Ripha Mountains, and in the name of the city of Rafah in southern Gaza Strip today, where these Rephaim, „sons of Anak„, lived. The name Anak may be an abbreviation of the gods Anunnaki, suggesting that those giants were demigods. However, Anak, the father of the Rephaim giants, may also come from the name Hanok (Enoch in Hebrew), written in Sumerian as Enokh. Also, the Old Testament claims that, after the Deluge, the father of mankind was Noah, whom we have already identified with Enoch / Nabu. Therefore, the giants encountered by the Jewish spies in Canaan could be members of one of the Thracian tribes that left the Carpathian Mountains. From this point of view, we can also explain the height difference between them and the rest of the peoples, as it is known that at the top of a mountain, gravity is lower than at the foot of the mountain. Therefore, those who live on the mountain peaks will be taller than those who live on lower relief forms.
For Homer and Hesiod, the giants who fought against the Olympian gods came from the country of Arimi, located in northern Lower Danube. For Latin poet Claudius, the land of the giants was called Inarime, a name which also comes from that of the Dacian tribe of the Arimi. After the war with the Dacians, Roman emperor Octavian built a temple dedicated to the god Mars Ultor („Mars the Avenger”), who poet Ovid claimed that it was „worthy of the trophies taken from the giants„. Roman poet Horace called Octavian „the second conqueror of the Titans„. Emperor Domitian, who also undertook an expedition to Dacia, was celebrated by poet Martial as a „conqueror of the giants„, and the senator Arruntius Stella organized a banquet in honor of Domitian’s victory, which he called a „triumph over the giants„. According to the ancient Greeks, the giants’ dwellings were located in the region of Mount Phlegra, where the war against the gods took place. The Roman poet Statius argued that Phlegra was located in Dacia. Indeed, near Cerna there is Mount Pregleda, a place devoid of forests, with a surface covered only by limestone and burned rocks. Pregleda is the ancient Phlegra from the Greek myths, which was burned by Zeus’ lightning. For the ancients, near the Giants’ Phlegra there was the Avernus / Aornus / Aouernis cave, and near the foothills of Mount Pregleda there is the huge Izverna cave. Southwest of the Retezat massif, which begins from north of Mount Pregleda, there is Mount Gugu, around which tall shepherds, called gugani, live isolated. The name „gugani” was also known to the ancient Greeks. A village in the region where the gods fought against the giants was named Gigonus. Egyptians used the epithet „gigon” for Hercules. On Tabula Peutingeriana, a copy of a Roman map from the 12th century, there is a village named Gaganis in Dacia. According to geographer Strabo, the Ligurians (who emigrated from the Carpathians to Italy) had a kind of horses and mules called „gygenoi„, that is gugan or mountain horses. The Greek name for the giants, „gigantes„, does not come from the word „gegeneis„, which means „born from soil”, but from the gugani of Mount Gugu. One of the Hecatoncheires of Greek mythology is named Gyges. Another Gyges, son of Daschilus, king of the Lydians, built a funeral mound of extraordinary size, as Herodotus recounts. Another giant, the king of Boeotia, was named Ogyges. Other descendants of the ancient giants can be found in the Hunedoara village of Tarsa, the most isolated place in Romania, where all members of a family have lived to be over 90 years old. Eleonora, one of them, believes that her family comes from „a lineage of old people, from before the Deluge. They were different people. People who remained. She says that they were the Dacians from Red Stone, some bigger people. Taller. And muscular. They lived for over a hundred and twenty years. That’s where our family’s lineage comes from„. The inhabitants of the Bordeiu Verde village in Brăila and Podeni in Prahova answered Nicolae Densusianu’s questionnaires similarly to those of Tarsa: „our seed is from giants„.
The Old Testament also speaks of the true nature of the Pelasgian / Thracian giants. The book of Genesis claims that „There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of Elohim came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown” (6:4). We have seen that the giants were the Pelasgians / Thracians, that people feared and praised by the whole ancient world for their bravery (Herodotus even called the Dacians „the bravest and most just of the Thracians„). The Bible claims the giants were the children of angels and mortals, that is demigods. The ancients also affirmed the same about the Thracians, especially the ones from Dacia. At the beginning of our era, in a letter sent to Dacians’ leader Cotiso, Latin poet Ovid referred to him and his entire people as „a nation descended from the gods„. Six centuries earlier, Greek poet Pindar, quoting Pherenicus of Heraclea, wrote about the Dacians north of the Danube as follows: „The Hyperboreans live in the far-off parts near the temple of Apollo. They are entirely inexperienced in war and, as the traditions say, are descended from the ancient Titans„. In the 5th century AD, Latin poet Claudian wrote that the Phoenix bird has its nest in the mountains of the Titans near the Ocean (Black Sea), that is the Carpathians. Here, the Greeks believed that Titan Atlas held up the sky on his shoulders, in the same place where Prometheus was crucified, that is on the Omu Peak. The Greeks called the Geto-Dacians „daoi„, meaning „divine”, because of their descent from the ancient gods. This descent from the gods led the Nazis to consider the Aryan race superior to other human races. In Jewish mythology, the children of angels and mortals are called Nephilim, a word formed from the root „nfl” („fallen”) and the ending „im„, which indicates the plural form. The peoples of Northern Europe called the other world Helheim („The Land of the Goddess Hel”) or Niflheim. The second name of the world beyond is made of „heim” („land”) and „nifl„, a word almost identical to „nfl” of the Jews. Therefore, Niflheim, the other world in the vision of the Norse, may mean „The Land of the Fallen” or „The Land of the Nephilim”. And the other world, in the conception of ancient peoples, was Transylvania of the Dacians.
Were the first Pelasgians identical to the Dacians after the Deluge? From Mesopotamian myths we know that until the appearance of the first humans, the gods created several rejects, those hominids from which scientists claim that humans originated. By mixing their genes with the genes of those hominids, the gods created the Pelasgians or the demigods, the famous giants from ancient times. The Pelasgians, descendants of the survivors of the Deluge (Nabu and his wife), were genetically modified, thus emerging different human races. Although the white race of today kept a larger proportion of the genetic material of the gods, it is not identical to that of the Pelasgians. A significant modification of the Pelasgians is the height reduction. Even though the Thracians were taller than other races, their height was significantly lower than that of the first Pelasgians before the Deluge. Traces of giants with a height of four to five meters are found all over the Earth, especially in their country of origin, present-day Romania. In Bucegi Mountains, giants’ skeletons with a high level of radioactivity were found in a tunnel. At Bucharest’s boundary, the remains of 80 giants with a height between three and five meters were discovered. In the necropolis of Argedava / Argedavon, the ancient Dacian capital, the skeletons of 80 giants were found in the 1940s – 1950s, some even five meters tall. The necropolis of the gods at Nucer, in Cotia Buzaului, is also known for it’s giants’ tombs. In Stroiasca village in Buzau county, underground galleries with „eternal lights„, halls of 200 meters in length, a source of radioactivity and several skeletons of giants with a height of three to four meters were discovered. At the Brukenthal Museum in Sibiu there is an enormous helmet from the Sighisoara – Fagaras area, about which historian and archaeologist Vasile Parvan wrote that it was for „a giant’s head„. In Doboli de Jos, an enormous sword was found, with a handle of 1.13 meters, considered to be of Scythian origin. In Coltea village in Braila county, human skeletons of over two and a half meters were discovered, called „ogre bones” by locals. Skeletons of giants have also been unearthed in Polovragi, Cetateni and the Negru Voda Monastery in Campulung-Muscel, even being said that Negru Voda himself had an imposing stature. Also, in October 1989, 20 skeletons of giants were excavated in Pantelimon-Lebada. Many villagers who unearthed these skeletons claim to have been threatened by death not to reveal what they have seen. In 2009, a team from Antena 1 television, who were investigating the topic of the giants from Bucegi, received a threatening phone call, the recording of which was later made public. A mysterious man „recommended” the journalists to stop the revelations, as they had entered „a dangerous game„. „Do not talk about Bucegi anymore. There is information that must remain at the level of structures and must not be made public. Do not wish to know us, to give interviews to us. That’s all I had to say„, the mysterious character continued. And these threats only serve to prove that the true history of the world is hidden by those who have held power for too long. However, as the Gospel of Luke in the New Testament says, „For nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest; neither any thing hid, that shall not be known and come abroad” (8:17).