In Antiquity people did not believe, as they do now, in omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent and eternal deities without beginning or end, attributes that surpass the barriers of logic. The gods of the ancients were similar to humans: they had flaws and qualities, weaknesses and strengths, they were born, they loved, hated and, of course, died. It is true that only their material bodies died, while their spirits living eternally. This is also said about humans, by the way.
Ancient religions are full of deities who died and, most often, resurrected. For example, in Babylon, Marduk killed the primordial goddess Tiamat, from whose body he created the Earth. In Sumer, Dumuzi (called Tammuz by the Semites) was killed by five galla demons in his sister’s sheepfold. His lover, Inanna, was also killed in the Underworld by the goddess Ereshkigal, and then resurrected by Enki. The most beloved god of the Egyptians was Osiris, who was killed by his brother, Seth, thus becoming the ruler of the Underworld. He was mummified by Anubis, which allowed him to briefly come back to life to impregnate his wife. Sumerian Dumuzi was also mummified by Inanna so that he could one day return to her. In Phoenicia and Syria there was the cult of Adonis, the god of death and resurrection, similar to Attis of the Phrygians. In Canaan, Mot, the god of death, killed Baal. Baal’s sister and lover, Anat, „grabbed faithful Mot and cut him with a sword„, which led to Baal’s resurrection. For Scandinavians, the blind god Hodur killed Baldur, being tricked by the trickster Loki. At Ragnarok, the Norse apocalypse, most of the gods met their end. Baldur resurrected after Ragnarok to rule the world alongside the few surviving gods. In addition to Adonis, whom they borrowed from the Phoenicians, the Greeks had other deities who met their death. Dionysus was eaten by the Titans and then recreated by Zeus. Titan Prometheus, crucified on Omu Peak, was killed every day by Zeus’s eagle, which ate his liver, and then resurrected the next day. Demigod Hercules became a god after he met his end in the flames of a burning pyre. For the Aztecs, god Quetzalcoatl committed suicide by setting himself on fire due to his remorse for sleeping with his sister after a night of drinking. Coyolxauhqui and his 400 brothers beheaded their mother, the goddess Coatlicue. The Egyptian goddess Isis was also beheaded by her son, Horus, and then resurrected by Thoth, who replaced her head with that of a cow. In Japan, the great goddess Izanami died after giving birth to the god of fire, due to the burns he caused. In Philippine mythology, god Ulilang Kaluluwa, a giant serpent who lived in the clouds, was killed in battle by god Bathala, the caretaker of the Earth. Several years later, the winged god Galang Kaluluwa died in Bathala’s kingdom due to an illness. For Buddhists, Siddhartha Gautama or Buddha died at the age of 80, while in Christianity Jesus was crucified at the age of 33 and resurrected after two days.
The secret of resurrecting the dead was not within everyone’s reach. A Sumerian text shows that once, Marduk complained to his father, Enki, that he had not been taught all the knowledge he possessed. „Son„, Enki replied, „what do you not know? What more could I give you?„. The hidden information, Marduk said, was the secret of resurrection from the dead. Indeed, as ancient texts indicate, Enki held that secret. In The Descent of Inanna to the Underworld, he was the one who resurrected the goddess killed by Ereshkigal. Enki sent two creatures (most likely grey biorobots) to retrieve Inanna’s body, which they connected to two mysterious devices. Then,
„Over the body that was beaten,
60 times the Food of Life,
60 times the Water of Life,
They sprinkled it
And Inanna rose.„
In an Egyptian story preserved on the Westcar Papyrus, Pharaoh Khufu learned from one of his sons about an old man who „had been initiated into the mysteries of Thoth„, which included the ability to resurrect the dead. It should be noted that Thoth was one of the names given by the Egyptians to Enki. To verify the information, the Pharaoh ordered the head of a prisoner to be cut off, challenging the old man to bring the man back to life. The old man refused to use that „magic of Thoth” on a human being and instead cut off the head of a goose. Then, he „uttered certain words of power” from the Book of Thoth and the severed head rejoined the body of the goose, which began to make sounds as before. According to Egyptian myths, Thoth is the one who resurrected Isis, replacing her head that was cut off by Horus with that of a cow.
Enki was not the only one who held the secret of resurrecting the dead, but also his former wife, Ninhursag. In an Egyptian myth, after being cut into pieces by Seth, Osiris (Enki) was mummified by Anubis. Then, his wife, Isis (Ninhursag), used her magic to bring him back to life. In Mesopotamia, Inanna (Ninhursag) embalmed Dumuzi (Enki), preparing him for his return to life. In Canaan, Baal was resurrected by his sister and wife, Anat, after she killed the god of death, Mot. In Japan, Okuninushi (Marduk), son of the exiled god Susanoo (Enki), was killed twice by his brothers in their battle for supremacy over the Earth and was resurrected each time by his mother (Ninhursag). In Sumerian texts about the creation of man, Enki is depicted as sleeping in the Underworld and the mother goddess Ninmah (Ninhursag) wakes him up to ask for his help. In some religions, such as Christianity, the deceased are not considered dead, but asleep in the afterlife, waiting to be awakened at the Last Judgment. Similarly, Enki is „asleep” in the Sumerian text and Ninhursag is the one who „awakens” him from the dead to bring him into our world.
Ninhursag did not keep the secret of resurrecting the dead only to herself, but also shared it with Enlil, her first son and second husband. Like Jesus and Viracocha, Enlil often resurrected the dead, as stated in Christian texts and Inca legends. In the Prometheus’ crucifixion myth, Zeus (Enlil) brought the titan back to life every day to be endlessly tortured by the eagle that devoured his liver. In Egyptian legends, Seth (Enlil) demonstrated that he knew how to prevent his brother, Osiris (Enki), from being resurrected by cutting his body into 13 pieces and scattering them throughout Egypt. Moreover, according to Christian mythology, Jesus (Enlil) also managed to resurrect on the third day after being crucified.
The first ruler of Earth, Enki, who was killed and resurrected several times, eventually met his end. Myths from around the world suggest that he was killed by Enlil, on which occasion Marduk, Enki’s son, received the rulership of Earth. Enlil, along with his Celestial companions, left the planet and headed to his father’s home in the heavens, the ethereal dimension of aeons. When did Enki’s death occur? Once again, archaeology, history and mythology can help us unravel the mystery. To understand when and why the god was killed, we need to learn about the events that led to that moment, which began in Sumer in the middle of the 3rd millennium BC.
The Weidner Chronicle states that during the reign of King Puzur-Nirah of Akshak, the temple fishermen of Esagila in Babylon, who had been fishing for seven or eight days for the god Marduk’s offerings, entered one day into Kubaba (Kug-Bau in Sumerian)’s tavern. Seeing them tired, she fed them and offered to cook the fish for the temple. Marduk was delighted beyond measure with the meal prepared by the tavern keeper and decided to give her the rulership of the world, so he enthroned her as the queen of city of Kish. The Sumerian King List asserts that Kug-Bau reigned for a century. She is one of the most prominent figures in ancient history, considering that she ruled Sumer alone in a patriarchal period when the world was led only by men. She was deified after her death and many altars were built throughout Mesopotamia in her honor. In the Hurrian region she was identified with Hebat / Kheba / Khepat, one of the mother goddess Hannahannah’s epithets. Nine centuries after her death, at the beginning of the Hittite period, she became the tutelary deity of the city of Karkemish. Her cult spread and her name was attributed to the main deity of Anatolia. The Lydians called her Kuvav or Kufav while the Greeks changed her name to Kybebe, considering her Zeus’ daughter. It is possible that the ancients were right and Kug-Bau really had a divine origin. Her lifespan was far superior to that of ordinary mortals, as she sat on the throne of Kish for 100 years. We don’t know how well she cooked, but it is unlikely that Marduk enthroned her just because he liked her food. Considering her unknown origin, her unnatural ascent, her longevity and her deification, we can speculate that she was, in fact, Marduk’s daughter.
It is possible that Hebat of the Hurrians, with whom Kug-Bau was matched, could be Hebe of the Greeks, the gods’ cupbearer on Mount Olympus until she married Hercules. This is not only because of the similarity between the names Hebat – Hebe and Kug-Bau – Kheba, but also because of her role: a tavern keeper during her life on Earth and a cupbearer of the gods after her deification, serving food and drink first to mortals and later to gods. Hebat / Kheba was matched with Kybele (Cybele in English) of the Phrygians, who was also adopted by the Greeks. From the 5th century BC, the Greeks called her Kubele, but researchers believe that her original name was Kybebe. A name very similar to Kubaba, the name given by the Babylonians to Queen Kug-Bau. Her identity becomes clear if we notice that, for the Greeks, Hebe became Hercules’ wife after he was deified and we have already matched Hercules with Ninurta, the god of war in Sumerian mythology. Ninurta’s wife was Gula, originally named Bau or Baba. Names that can only refer to the tavern keeper Kug-Bau / Kubaba.
After Queen Kug-Bau’s death in 2365 BC, the throne of Sumer passed to her son, Puzur-Suen, who kept the seat of power in Kish. Little is known about him, except that he reigned for a quarter of a century. During Puzur-Suen’s rule, Sargon the Great was born in the city of Azupiranu. According to Sargon’s autobiography, his mother was a high priestess while his father was unknown. After giving birth to Sargon in secret, the priestess placed him in a basket made of reeds coated with bitumen and set him afloat on the Euphrates River. He was found in Kish by Akki, the gardener of King Puzur-Suen, who adopted him. According to the Sumerian King List, Sargon became the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, Puzur-Suen’s son, who ascended the throne in 2340 BC. Sargon’s legend states that before this, the boy was a gardener, just like his adoptive father. At that time, Sargon came across Ishtar one day, resting in the king’s garden. The goddess liked him and became his lover. „When I was a gardener, Ishtar favored me with her love„, he boasted. In another text, he detailed the love story between him and the goddess:
„One day, my queen,
After she had crossed the heavens, crossed the Earth – Inanna,
After she had crossed the heavens, crossed the Earth,
After she had crossed Elam and Subir,
After she had crossed […]
She became weary, she lay down to sleep.
I watched her at the edge of the garden;
I kissed her, I layed with her.„
Ur-Zababa’s reign was short, only six years, at least according to researchers, although all copies of the Sumerian King List claim that he ruled for four centuries, except for one copy which attributes him only six years. King Lugal-Zage-Si of Umma killed him after he conquered the city, along with other Sumerian city-states such as Lagash, Nippur, Ur, Larsa and Uruk. In an inscription, Lugal-Zage-Si announced that god Enlil had given him „all the lands between the upper and lower seas„. Therefore, he proclaimed himself king of Sumer and established his capital in Uruk. He did not have much time to enjoy his kingdom; he was captured by Sargon, who convinced the army of Kish to follow him and captured Uruk, tearing down its walls. Sargon then brought Lugal-Zage-Si to Nippur and dragged him on a leash in front of Enlil’s temple. Sargon began his reign in 2334 BC and, by conquering not only Sumer, but the entire Mesopotamia, established the world’s first official empire, the Akkadian Empire, at goddess Ishtar’s orders. A text called Chronicles of Sargon claims that „Sargon, king of Akkad, rose in the era of Ishtar„. To build his empire, Sargon was helped by the goddess, his lover from the time he was a gardener. This was natural considering that he was a Semite, therefore a follower of the Watchers. During a campaign across the Zagros Mountains, while „entering the land of Warahshi (…) as he advanced in the darkness (…) Ishtar made a light shine for him„. Thus, Sargon was able to „break through the darkness„, leading his troops through the passes to today’s Kurdistan. The king showed his gratitude and built a temple for the goddess in Agade, the capital of his empire. A city dedicated to her, by the way. „In Agade, holy Inanna raised a temple as a noble abode; in Ummash, she raised a throne„, says a Sumerian text. It seems that, in the end, Sargon’s reign also received the approval of the Celestials. At least that’s what the king claimed. A bilingual text, Sumerian-Akkadian, inscribed on a statue of Sargon, placed before Enlil in his temple in Nippur, announces that Sargon was not only „All-Comprehensive Watcher of Ishtar„, but also „anointed priest of Anu” and „the great regent of Enlil„, Enlil being the god who „gave him power and rule„. Another text stated that „Enlil did not allow anyone to oppose Sargon, the king of the land; from the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea, Enlil gave him everything„. The same thing was claimed by Lugal-Zage-Si of Umma before he was killed by Sargon.
55 years ruled Sargon (Sharru-kinu in original), who was nicknamed „The Great„. His wife, Tashlultum, bore him a daughter, Enheduanna, and four sons: Rimush, Manishtusu, Shu-Enlil or Ibarum and Illaba’is-takal. After Sargon’s death in 2279 BC, Rimush took over the empire’s throne and ruled for nine years. He was followed by his brother, Manishtusu, who reigned for 15 years until 2255 BC, when he was assassinated by members of his royal court. It is assumed that Rimush had a similar fate. Sargon appointed Enheduanna as high priestess of Nanna (Enki) in Ur to cement his power in southern Sumer. The princess held her position until Rimush’s reign, when she was expelled due to her involvement in a form of political unrest, and eventually reinstated as high priestess. Although she was a priestess of Enki, the princess preferred Ishtar, to whom she composed a significant number of hymns. She was the first recorded holder of the title „En Priestess” in history, a role of great political importance often held by princesses throughout history. Enheduanna continued to be a prominent figure after her death, even being attributed a semi-divine status.
Who was Sargon really? Both his mother and daughter held the position of high priestess and he proclaimed himself the „anointed priest of Anu„. At that time, being considered the representative of the gods on Earth, the high priest had such great influence that he could even crown kings. For this reason, this role was not assigned to anyone but members of royal houses. We do not know details about Sargon’s parents, but we can infer that his mother, through her position, was of royal blood. Sargon was born when Puzur-Suen, the divine Kug-Bau’s son, who ruled for one hundred years, was king of Sumer. Although we have no evidence to support this hypothesis, it is likely that Sargon’s mother belonged to the royal family of Puzur-Suen, given her supreme position in the priesthood. Being about the same age as the king, she may have even been his sister, therefore, Kug-Bau’s daughter. This would make Sargon the great-grandson of the god Marduk. It is a mystery to historians why a mere gardener was appointed as cupbearer to King Ur-Zababa, a role reserved only for the nobility. However, this can be explained by Sargon’s descent from the royal house of the divine Kug-Bau. The reason why the gods helped a simple gardener to ascend to the throne of Sumer and establish the first empire in history, with Ishtar even becoming his lover, is also a mystery. But it all makes sense accepting the possibility that Sargon was the great-grandson of Marduk, the god who ultimately brought about his downfall.
At the end of his long reign, Sargon built the city of Agade / Akkad, which he designated as the capital of his empire. The etymology of the name is unknown to researchers, who are certain, however, that it does not have an Akkadian origin, but probably a Sumerian or Hurrian one. The non-Akkadian origin of the city’s name suggests that the place was already populated during Sargon’s time, as evidenced by its mention in a pre-Sargonic inscription. Most likely, for unknown reasons, the king transformed a village or small town into the grand capital of an empire. The location of the city has not been determined to date, just like Sargon’s birthplace, Azupiranu. It is possible that Agade and Azupiranu, the two unknown cities known only to be on the banks of the Euphrates, were one and the same. It seems logical that Sargon would have built a capital in his birthplace, which remains only a hypothesis in the absence of evidence.
The Chronicle of Early Kings asserts that the king raised Agade on land brought from Babylon, Marduk’s city. The purpose was to sanctify the new capital; a holy city, like Babylon, was built on sacred ground. Since he did not find any empty sacred land on which to build his capital, the most natural solution was to bring such ground from Babylon. A gesture that infuriated Marduk:
„Considering the sacrilege thus committed by Sargon,
The great lord Marduk became angry
And destroyed the people through starvation.
From east to west, he alienated them from Sargon;
And gave him the punishment of not finding his rest.„
History records famine, wars and rebellions throughout the empire towards the end of Sargon’s reign. In his autobiography, the king stated: „all the lands rebelled against me and besieged me in Agade, but the old lion still has teeth and claws„. He died in 2279 BC, not finding his rest until then, in accordance with Marduk’s punishment.
The Akkadian Empire reached its peak during the reign of Naram-Sin, Manishtusu’s son and Sargon’s grandson, who ascended to the throne in 2255 BC after his father’s assassination. „King of the Four Parts of the World„, as he called himself, Naram-Sin was, like all Semites, a follower of the Watchers. His name contains one of Enki’s Akkadian epithets, Sin (Nanna to the Sumerians). The king confessed that Marduk gave him some territories but also the „weapon of the god„, which he used to defeated his enemies. In an inscription about Naram-Sin’s march towards Lebanon, Marduk’s merits are recognized:
„Although from the era of man’s reign
No king ever destroyed Arman and Ebla,
Now god Nergal (i.e. Marduk) has opened the way for the brave Naram-Sin,
Gave him Ebla and Arman, gave him Amanus
And the Cedar Mountains and the Upper Sea.„
Naram-Sin’s great mistake, which led to the destruction of the Akkadian Empire, was the looting of Enlil’s temple in Nippur, known as Ekur, at goddess Ishtar’s command. Right after this sacrilege she left her temple in Agade, the capital of the Akkadians, hiding from Enlil’s anger:
„The word of Ekur floated over Agade
Like a deathly silence;
Agade trembled entirely;
Its temple, Ulmash, was horrified;
She who lived there left the city.
The maiden forgot her chamber,
The holy Inanna (Ishtar) forgot her altar in Agade.„
The goddess had a reason for this defiant action. A text entitled The Queen of All MEs acknowledges that Ishtar was trying to shatter the Old Divine Order and establish a New World Order. Determined to become the supreme deity, she defied Anu’s and Enlil’s authority, as well as their laws. Announcing that „she had become greater than the mother who gave birth to her (…) greater even than Anu„, Ishtar seized the E-Anna temple („House of Anu”) in Uruk:
„The heavenly monarchy was seized by a woman (…)
She completely changed the laws of the holy Anu,
She was not afraid of the great Anu.
She took from Anu the E-Anna,
The house with an unparalleled charm and enduring nobility.
To that house, she brought destruction;
Inanna attacks her people, taking them prisoner.„
The goddess’ coup was taking place on two fronts. While she conquered Anu’s temple in Uruk, Naram-Sin attacked Enlil’s temple in Nippur. According to the text called by scholars The Curse of Akkad, after receiving the order he had been waiting for seven years, the Akkadian king:
„Defied the word of Enlil;
Crushed the servants of Enlil,
Mobilized his troops and,
Like a despot skilled in tyranny,
Took Ekur in his iron hand.„
Conquering Nippur with ease, Naram-Sin „plundered it like a thief„. He forced his way into the Ekur temple, „raising great ladders against the wall of the House„. He reached the Holy of Holies, a place allowed only to Enlil’s priests. „Now, people saw his sacred hermitage, a chamber that did not know the light; the Akkadians saw the holy vessels of the god„, which the king „threw into the fire„. To complete the sacrilege, he „drew large boats to the quay near the House of Enlil and took the wealth of the city„.
The Curse of Akkad also claims that Enlil cursed the Akkadian Empire for the sacrilege committed by Naram-Sin. He caused a drought and famine spread throughout the empire. The rich were looted, people fought each other for food and the statues of the gods were burned. Although the curse of Enlil was long considered a fictional event, at the end of the last century, after examining the Mesopotamian soil, archaeologist Harvey Weiss concluded that around 2200 BC there was a long drought that dried up the soil and caused famine, thus confirming the Mesopotamian myth. It is possible that the climatic changes were caused by the Hale-Bopp comet, which passed by Earth in 2215 BC. This climatic change or „curse” was not enough for the vengeful god. Extremely angry „because his beloved Ekur had been attacked„, Enlil summoned the Gutians to Mesopotamia to destroy the weakened Akkadian Empire due to famine, drought and revolts. In 2193 BC, after the death of Shar-Kali-Sharri, Naram-Sin’s son, the Gutian hordes invaded „in great numbers, like locusts (…) nothing escaped their grasp„. Many Akkadians were mercilessly slaughtered: „those who slept on the roof died on the roof; those who slept inside were not taken to the grave (…) heads were crushed, mouths were smashed (…) the blood of traitors flowed over the blood of the faithful„. To prevent the devastation of the entire area, eight of the great gods decided that Agade, „the city that dared to attack Ekur„, should be destroyed while the others spared. „Strike Agade with a curse of hatred„, they told Enlil, only to leave the other regions alone. Enlil agreed and the Gutian hordes wiped the Akkadian capital off the face of the Earth, drove out the Semites and then ruled Mesopotamia, with Lagash being their headquarters. The arrival of the hordes in Mesopotamia occurred just before the transition to the Age of Aries. After the Gutians took over Mesopotamia, Anu and Enlil implanted the weapon Shuhadaku in the city of Kish and Ninurta restored agriculture and irrigation systems destroyed by Enlil’s „curse”. Many cities were rebuilt and repopulated, only Agade was left deserted forever. Ninurta, Enlil’s son, asked Gutian Gudea (2144 – 2124 BC), king of Lagash, to build a new temple for him, called Eninnu. He even offered the temple plan, which Gudea followed exactly. When the temple was finished, as the king noted, Ninurta appeared alongside two other gods, all standing next to the „divine bird of the raging wind” (the god’s aircraft), which he locked up in the temple, where it was constantly guarded by two „divine weapons„. And it seemed that Mesopotamia was once again in the hands of the Celestials through their followers, the Aryans. However, the Watchers did not accept defeat too easily.
In 2119 BC, Uruk’s governor Utu-Hegal rebelled against the Gutians led by King Tirigan, whom he defeated and drove out of Mesopotamia, then he was crowned as the king of Sumer. This marked the beginning of the Sumerian Renaissance, which led to the birth of the Neo-Sumerian Empire. Utu-Hengal did not last long on the throne, as he was replaced after only seven years by his son-in-law and Ur’s governor, Ur-Nammu (2112 – 2094 BC). Although of Aryan descent, these Sumerian kings did not obey the orders of the Celestials, but were followers of the Watchers. Utu-Hengal’s name contained one of the Sumerian epithets of Marduk, Utu. Ur-Nammu, who proclaimed himself a demigod, claiming that his mother was the goddess Ninsun, began building a large ziggurat in the city of Ur dedicated to Enki, called Etemennigur („The House whose foundation creates terror”). The ziggurat was finished by his son, Shulgi, who also waged several wars with the Gutians. Ur-Nammu wrote that god Nanna (Enki) ordered him to build that temple, for which he gave him precise measurements, even offering him a rod and a measuring rope. Shulgi boasted that he had spent time with Marduk and Ishtar in Anu’s temple in Uruk and that he had sex with the goddess. His son, Amar-Sin, established a royal residence at Eridu (Enki’s city) and adopted priestly functions. Also the names of the last three kings of Sumer, Amar-Sin, Shu-Sin and Ibbi-Sin, included Sin, one of Enki’s Akkadian epithets. Why did Enlil allow his Gutian people to be driven out and Mesopotamia to be ruled by followers of the Watchers? The answer can be found in the Code of Ur-Nammu, the oldest law code discovered to date, which begins as follows: „After An and Enlil handed over the kingship of the city of Ur to Nanna (i.e. Enki), at that time Ur-Nammu, the beloved son of Ninsun, did in accordance with his principles of justice and truth…„. Did Anu and Enlil willingly hand over the rulership to Enki? Or did the leader of the Watchers take it upon himself? In theory, it is logical for Enki to have tried to regain power in his era, the Age of Aries, and to have chosen Aryans instead of his Semitic people, who at that time did not have the necessary strength to recapture Mesopotamia.
Similar to the events in Mesopotamia and contemporary with them, significant events also occurred in Egypt. After the fall of the Old Kingdom around 2181 BC, Egypt entered the First Intermediate Period, a dark period in Egyptian history. Chaos, famine, revolts and power struggles swept the land of the pharaohs for about a century. The temples were vandalized, the kings statues were destroyed, while the dynasties of Thebes (Enki’s city) and Heracleopolis (devoted to Ninurta) fought for power, dividing Egypt in two. Climate changes brought drought to the Egyptians and, consequently, a period of famine, just like in the Akkadian Empire. And exactly at the same time. Around 2055 BC, in the last years of Shulgi’s reign in Sumer, Mentuhotep II ascended to the throne of Thebes and unified Egypt. The Neo-Sumerian Empire started with the reign of Utu-Hengal, while Mentuhotep II is considered the founder of Egypt’s Middle Kingdom. The pharaoh was also a follower of the Watchers, his capital, Thebes, being the main cult center of Amun (Enki). Mentuhotep was even represented in art wearing the crown of Amun. If Shulgi completed the construction of a great ziggurat in Ur devoted to Enki, Mentuhotep II built a huge funerary temple dedicated to the same deity. Everything was happening almost identically and approximately at the same time in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Major changes also occurred in China during this time. According to the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronological Project of 1996, around 2070 BC, the first traditional dynasty of China, the Xia, was founded. Its founder was Da Yu (the Great Yu), a descendant of the Yellow Emperor Huangdi (a divine character considered the initiator of Chinese civilization). Before becoming the ruler of China, Da Yu invented a system to control the floods that had hit the country at the same time as the climate changes mentioned by the Egyptians and Mesopotamians, probably caused by the appearance of the Hale-Bopp comet (or by the anger of Enlil). Myths say that Yu stopped the floods by cutting the crest of a mountain with the help of a divine weapon to create a drainage channel. Other legends suggest that he was helped by a yellow dragon and a black tortoise. Chinese folklore also claims that Yu killed Xiangliu, the nine-headed serpent of the water god Gong Gong, who devastated the lands of China. Like Mesopotamia and Egypt, China of that time was plagued by internal conflicts, which frequently occurred between the Xia and Chi You tribes. Because he stopped the floods and rebuilt agriculture, Yu received the throne of China, thus founding the Xia dynasty and divided China into nine provinces.
Considering all these similar events in Mesopotamia, Egypt and China, and adding the construction of Seahenge in the UK in 2049 BC, we cannot help but wonder what happened during that time. Most likely, an important event took place, with repercussions throughout the world. What event? The answer can be found in Egypt, the land of the pharaohs.
Around 2050 BC, during Mentuhotep II’s reign and shortly after Enki took control of Egypt and Mesopotamia, emerged the cult of Osiris, Enki’s alter-ego. In the Osirian religion, the god, first ruler of the world, was killed by his brother, Seth (Enlil), who took his throne. After a battle with his uncle, Horus (Marduk), Osiris’ son, received the coveted throne and, implicitly, the leadership of the entire world. Then, Ra (Anu) took Seth with him on the Boat of Millions of Years, used by the supreme god to wander the sky. Osiris’ religion originated in the city of Abju, called Abydos by the Greeks. Abju comes from Abzu, the underground house of Enki in Sumerian religion. Therefore, the Egyptians believed the city of Abydos to be the earthly home of the god. They even claimed that the head of Osiris, the god who was locked in a box and then cut into pieces by his brother, was located there in a place of honor.
The emergence at that time of the cult of Osiris, the slain god, may indicate that his death occurred shortly before. And there were motives for that crime. Enki had just taken Mesopotamia and Egypt from Enlil, who was still angry about the looting of his temple in Nippur, for which the Akkadians, the Watchers’ followers, were responsible. The conflict between the Celestials / Anunna and the Watchers / Igigi was a longstanding one, and these recent actions by Enki were just the drops that filled the cup. After this incident, beginning around 2000 BC, the appearances of the gods among humans significantly dropped. Both the Celestials and Enki disappeared, and according to ancient chronicles, only the Watchers kept showing up. At the same time as the gods, also the Sumerians disappeared, as historians suggest.
The departure of the Celestials from Earth can only be attributed to an order from Anu. Sent here by the emperor to oversee the Watchers, they undoubtedly withdrew at his command. Most likely for the killing of Enki, Anu decided to take Enlil back to the world of the gods, and the Earth to remain under the rule of the slain god’s son, Marduk. The enthronement of Marduk as king of the Earth is evident from several ancient sources. In addition to the Egyptian myth of Horus, who received the throne from the supreme god Ra, there is the Babylonian poem Enuma Elish, which describes the election of Marduk to lead the pantheon, and the prologue of the Code of Hammurabi, which begins with the statement: „When the exalted Anu, king of the Anunnaki and Ellil (Enlil), lord of heaven and Earth (…) granted divine rulership over the many peoples to Marduk, the firstborn son of Ea (Enki), he exalted him among the Igigi (the Watchers)”. In Japanese chronicles, Okuninushi became the ruler of the Earth and was given the title „Lord of the Land” after his father moved to the Other World. For Scandinavians, Baldur became the leader of the pantheon after Ragnarok, the apocalypse that brought the death of most gods. The Greeks did not have myths that explained Marduk’s ascent, but they left a clue by naming Apollo as the heir of Zeus (Enlil), although Ares (Ninurta) was the supreme god’s right-hand. For Persians, Ahura Mazda or Ormuzd became the supreme god of the pantheon with the advent of Zoroastrianism, and for Muslims Allah became the only God. After returning from Babylon, the Jews adopted Marduk as their sole god, assigning him the name Yahweh. In the New Testament, which calls Marduk „Satan„, the god is considered „the prince of this world” (The Gospel of John 14:30) and „the god of this world” (Second Epistle to the Corinthians 4:4). Also, in the Book of Revelation, Marduk is the Beast to whom „the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority” (13:2), the author adding that „power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations” (13:7). Marduk’s followers sometimes exaggerated the importance of their god. For example, for Babylonians, Marduk became the leader of all celestial and earthly gods, the Sumerian text Enki and the World Order claims that „Enki entrusted him with the entire Universe” and for Akkadians and Assyrians he was „the lord of heaven and Earth„. In reality, Anu kept his function as the supreme ruler of the world, leaving to Marduk only the throne of Earth.
Enki’s death around 2050 BC, the Celestials’ departure and Marduk’s accession to the throne of the Earth have historical coverage. At that time, the Amorites and Elamites (Semites, therefore followers of the Watchers) invaded Mesopotamia, which led to the disappearance of the Sumerians (Aryans who withdrew from the area, being left without the protection of their gods). After the reign of Shulgi, Ur-Nammu’s son, the Neo-Sumerian Empire was ruled by kings who included in their names one of Enki’s Akkadian epithets, Sin, in honor of their god who had just died: Amar-Sin (2048 – 2039 BC), Shu-Sin (2039 – 2030 BC), and Ibbi-Sin (2030 – 2006 BC). Before the reign of these three kings, Shulgi finished the construction of the great temple of Enki in Ur, begun by his father, and the Assyrian king Ushpia, who ruled around 2030 BC, built a temple for the same god in the city of Ashur in Assyria. Babylon, founded in the 23rd century BC (somewhere between 2286 and 2231 BC according to various ancient chronicles) and dedicated to Marduk, was transformed by the Amorites from a small town into the grand capital of the Babylonian Empire. In the 18th century BC, the sixth king of Babylon, the Amorite Hammurabi, claimed that he received a code of laws and a very powerful weapon from Marduk. „Gods Ea and Bel called me by name, Hammurabi, a skillful ruler, fearing the gods, to bring justice to the land, to destroy the evil and cunning, so that the strong do not oppress the weak, to appear to people like the Sun to light up the country – I, Hammurabi, the shepherd called by god Bel, who brings wealth and riches (…) When god Marduk entrusted me with the helm of the world and to bring justice to the lands, then I myself created justice and right in the language of the country, making people rejoice„, wrote the king in his code. He even carved the moment when Marduk entrusted him with the laws. The teaching of laws by Marduk is not an isolated case, as he gave a similar code to the Sumerian king Ur-Nammu not long before and later, according to the Bible, laws for the Israelites to Moses. Also at his god’s command, Hammurabi raised the walls of Babylon and built temples for the main gods, Marduk, Ea / Enki and Ishtar, who replaced the supreme Sumerian triad, consisting of An, Enlil and Enki. Probably using the weapon received from his god, Hammurabi conquered his neighbors and founded the Babylonian Empire. He decreed Babylon as „the most holy city” in Mesopotamia, a title previously held by Enlil’s Nippur. Marduk’s cult spread fast and during the Neo-Babylonian time it developed so much that the god became unrivaled. During Hammurabi’s time, the priests preached that Marduk, once at the head of the pantheon, took all Enlil’s titles and attributes, while his sister and consort, Ishtar, did the same with their mother, Ninhursag. The only one considered equal to Marduk was his father, Ea. The transformation of Marduk’s cult into henotheism was the decisive step towards the transition from polytheism to monotheism, the most logical development of the god of this world’s religion. „Thou shalt have no other gods before me” thus became god’s first commandment for all his followers.
If Enki was really killed by his rival around 2050 BC, how did he die? The first clue comes from the ancient Egyptians, who recorded the most details about the god’s death. In their writings, the souls of the dead went to Osiris, in the underworld realm he ruled. Strangely, the souls went towards the sky to reach the kingdom inside the Earth. More precisely, towards the Orion belt, matched by the Egyptians with Osiris. Several modern Egyptologists have concluded that Duat, Osiris’ underworld, became a part of the sky at some point. They have even identified its celestial coordinates. In the 1940s, Egyptologist Selim Hassan was the first to attempt identifying those coordinates. After a careful study of many funerary and resurrection texts, he established that Duat was imagined by the ancient Egyptians „in the eastern part of the sky” and could be discovered when the star Sirius and the Orion constellation became visible before dawn. „Orion was enveloped by Duat while the one who lives on the horizon purifies himself. Sothis (i.e. Sirius) was enveloped by Duat while the one who lives on the horizon purifies himself„, says one of the funerary texts, from which Hassan understood that it was based on astronomical observations, leading to the conclusion that Duat was located in the sky. „I have passed through the ways of Osiris; these are at the edge of the sky„, says one of the Coffin Texts, manuals for guiding souls in the afterlife, written just before 2040 BC, a few years after Enki / Osiris’ death. On their way to Orion, the soul of the deceased stopped in the Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter. How did the god under the earth reach the sky? And why did the souls stop in the Asteroid Belt if the god was waiting for them in the Orion Belt? Did the ancient Egyptians see any connection between the meteorites in the Belt and Osiris’ dismembered body?
Spread over approximately 2 – 3.4 Astronomical Units, the Asteroid Belt located between Mars and Jupiter has an unknown origin. Scientists have put forth some hypotheses to try to explain the asteroids’ origin, but none are satisfactory. It cannot be remnants of a planet because the total mass of the asteroids in the Belt reaches nearly 4% of the Moon’s mass, which would mean a celestial body smaller than Charon, Pluto’s moon. To form an Earth-sized planet, approximately 2000 of such asteroid belts would be required. If it were a celestial body, the question arises: what or who shattered it? It seems that the asteroids in the Belt cannot be attracted by planet Mars due to Jupiter’s gravity, and vice versa. This means that they are exactly at the point where the gravities of the two planets act equally on them to keep them in the same place. This would be quite a coincidence if we assign it to chance. The main asteroids’ orbits in the Asteroid Belt are elliptical, unlike planets, which have almost circular orbits. On Ceres, the dwarf planet of the asteroid belt, as well as on a few asteroids, ice has been discovered, the origin of which also raises questions. Furthermore, some researchers have calculated that the entire asteroids’ mass in the Belt could fit perfectly into the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean, which also has an unknown origin.
The Mariana Trench is located near Japan, about 2,000 kilometers east of the Philippines and south of Guam. To the north it continues with the Bonin Trench, which continues northward with the Japan Trench. Being the deepest point on the Earth’s surface, with a depth of 10,994 meters, exploring the bottom of the Mariana Trench is almost impossible, as the water pressure is nearly two tons per square centimeter. In other words, at that depth, the human body would be subjected to a pressure equivalent to the weight of 20 large airplanes. No one knows how it was formed, with the academic community considering it the work of a meteorite, which is not actually found there. „It is a lunar-like, desolate place, very isolated. The feeling was one of isolation from all of humanity„, said film director James Cameron, who explored it in 2012. The Mariana Trench is located where a mythical continent, called Lemuria, Mu or Kumari Kandam, is said to have sunk and where a highly advanced civilization is said to have lived, a hypothesis that has been debunked by modern theories of tectonic plates. However, the Pacific Ocean has about 25,000 islands, more than all the other oceans combined, and submerged cities and pyramid structures have been discovered near the Mariana Trench. The trench is located in a region of great tectonic instability, called the Pacific Ring of Fire, the largest and most active volcanic zone on Earth, which has 62% of the currently active volcanoes on our planet. Also, the Mariana Trench is located in the Dragon’s Triangle or Devil’s Sea, a mysterious area located on the same meridian as the Bermuda Triangle in the Atlantic Ocean. In both triangles, numerous cases of disappearances of ships, boats or planes, as well as appearances of phantom ships and UFOs have occurred. According to survivors, in that mysterious area their equipment stopped working, a sudden mist reduced their visibility and time seemed to pass much faster. Vladimir Ajaja, one of the most respected Russian ufologists, stated: „Fifty percent of UFO encounters are related to the oceans. Another fifteen percent are related to lakes. Thus UFOs tend to be associated with water„, adding that „there have been incidents where scientists have seen unidentified objects in the Mariana Trench„. Therefore, we cannot help but wonder what is happening in that area. And how was the Mariana Trench formed?
In a Japanese legend, fisherman Urashima Taro saved a turtle from some children who were torturing it. As a reward, a larger turtle took him to Ryugu-jo, the underwater palace of Ryujin, the dragon emperor and god of the waters. Upon arriving at the underwater palace, the fisherman learned that the turtle he had saved was Princess Toyatama-hime or Otohime, daughter of the dragon emperor. Urashima Taro spent three days in the underwater palace and then returned to his village, where he learned that he had been missing for 300 years. According to this legend, the underwater palace was located in the Dragon’s Triangle, near the Mariana Trench. The dragon emperor and god of the waters can only be Enki. Also for the Greeks, as Poseidon, he lived at the bottom of the sea, while the Babylonians, who called him Uanna (Oannes), believed he lived in the depths of the Persian Gulf. In Sumer, Enki was believed to live in Abzu, the source of groundwater. This underground house of his was one of the cities of the underground kingdom of Agartha. Being considered the source of groundwater, Abzu was located beneath the Earth’s crust, beneath a sea or an ocean, which was the true reason why the ancients believed the god lived at the bottom of the water, and nowadays half of the UFO sightings are seen coming out of or entering oceans. As an example, in the Book of Revelation, the Beast from the Abyss comes into the world of humans „rise up out of the sea” (13:1). Far from being a coincidence, the word „abyss” comes from Abzu, the underground place where Enki was forced to live, imprisoned by Enlil, and the Mariana Trench is also called „the Great Abyss„. In Greek, „abyssos” means „deep” or „bottomless pit”, names that perfectly fit the Pacific Trench. The Greeks called Abydos the Egyptian city of Abju after the word „abyssos” and Abju, in turn, came from the Sumerian Abzu. And Abju / Abydos was the main cult center of Osiris (Enki), the god killed by his brother and sent to the Underworld. In the New Testament, the word „abyssos” appears nine times, referring to the dwelling place of demons (The Gospel of Luke 8:31), the abode of the dead (Romans 10:7), the place from which the Beast and the angel Abaddon / Apollion come, and the prison of the one considered „the great dragon” and „that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan” (The Book of Revelation). In the Second Epistle of Peter 2:4, the synonymous word „tartaros” („tartarus” in English) was preferred for the prison of the sinful angels. In Greek mythology, Tartarus was the lowest region of the world, where the Titans were imprisoned, a place of punishment for sinners, human or divine. It was described by the ancient Greeks as a dark, damp and sad place, similar to the description of the Mariana Trench made by James Cameron: „It is a lunar-like, desolate place, very isolated. The feeling was one of isolation from all of humanity„. Therefore, there is a good chance that the Mariana Trench is the place where Enki’s underground city, Abzu, once existed. The myths of the lost continent in that area, Lemuria / Mu, populated once by highly evolved technological and spiritual beings who brought civilization to mankind, also support this hypothesis. In his 1926 book, British writer James Churchward even claimed that Osiris came from the continent of Mu in the Pacific. If that’s the case, where did Enki’s city disappear to?
As some researchers have concluded, the asteroids in the belt between Mars and Jupiter could fit perfectly into the Mariana Trench. In other words, a large piece of land disappeared from the Pacific Ocean and the same amount appeared between Mars and Jupiter, but fragmented. Is it possible that the mysterious Asteroid Belt originated from the Pacific Ocean? It’s a bold but logical hypothesis. We know from myths that Enlil killed his brother, who lived in the Underworld. We also know that he killed him several times before, but each time Enki was resurrected. Therefore, to put an end to the conflict once and for all, Enlil needed a permanent solution. To make sure that Enki could not be resurrected again, Enlil ripped him and his underground city out of the ground, along with the surrounding soil, and sent everything into space, far from Earth, towards Mars, where he likely shattered it into pieces, possibly through an explosion. The Scandinavians even believed that Loki (Enki) died burned, leaving only a handful of ashes behind. We don’t know the method by which Enlil succeeded in doing this. However, an entity advanced enough to create the material world would be able to launch a city into space without much difficulty. The Egyptian myth of Osiris seems to support this version. Seth locked him in a box (which could represent the underground city in which Enki was imprisoned by his brother), then cut him into pieces and scattered him all over the world or, in other words, blew him into the sky with the „box” (and the piece of soil in which he was wrapped), scattering him between Mars and Jupiter, thus forming the Asteroid Belt. The Dogon people of Mali have the myth of the rebellious god Nommo, who was torn into pieces and scattered all over the world. Some asteroids still show traces of frozen water, which can be explained by their origin from the Pacific Ocean. Others, like 16 Psyche, are metallic, containing huge amounts of iron, and are likely remnants of Osiris / Enki’s „box” (the underground city). Thus we also understand why the souls of the dead Egyptians no longer went underground to their god, but to the Asteroid Belt.
The hypothesis of Enki’s city shattered into space emerges from the religious beliefs of the ancients. The Babylonians believed that there is a Babylon in heaven identical to the one on Earth. They also considered Babylon to be a copy of the city of Eridu, Enki’s earthly home. By analogy, for the Babylonians there was a city of Enki in heaven. In the Book of Revelation in the New Testament, a huge city called New Jerusalem will come down to Earth: „And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband” (21:2). This city descended from heaven, where the deities lived, „lieth foursquare, and the length is as large as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs. The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal” (21:16). 12,000 stadia equals 2220 kilometers, which does not represent the length of each side of the city (which would give an area of 4,928,400 square kilometers, or almost 1% of the total area of the Earth), as is wrongly assumed, but the area of the city. A construction with an area of almost 5 million square kilometers would take up a lot of space. By comparison, the American city of New York has an area of only 831.4 square kilometers. Therefore, an area of 2220 square kilometers is more acceptable. Considering that the Mariana Trench has an area of 2540 square kilometers, we can consider that the New Jerusalem from the Book of Revelation is the underground city torn from that place and destroyed between Mars and Jupiter. Jerusalem translates as „Foundation of Shalim”, who was the Canaanite god of twilight and supreme god El’s son, who had the Evening Star as his symbol. These characteristics identify Shalim with Enki. According to biblical tradition, Jerusalem was built by King David, written in Hebrew as „Dwd” and in Egyptian as „Tht„, none other than the god of wisdom Thoth, an Egyptian alter-ego of Enki.
If the body of the god of wisdom was shattered among asteroids, it should come as no surprise that an asteroid received his name. 1923 Osiris or 4011P-L is the name attributed to an asteroid discovered on 24th September 1960 by Cornelis Johannes van Houten and Ingrid van Houten-Groeneveld. Another asteroid, discovered on 11th September 1999, was named 101955 Bennu or 1999 RQ36, with Bennu being an Egyptian bird deity associated with Osiris and Ra. On 8th September 2016, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft was launched to collect soil samples from the asteroid 101955 Bennu. NASA has announced that if it has the funds, it will build the OSIRIS-REx 2 spacecraft, which will study planet Mars’ natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos (which are believed to originate from the asteroid belt). Although OSIRIS-REx stands for „Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer„, in Latin it means „King Osiris”. The Rosetta spacecraft (named after the Egyptian city where the famous stone that allowed the French to decode Egyptian hieroglyphs was discovered), launched on 2nd March 2004, which studied the asteroids 1 Ceres and 21 Lutetia in the Belt, has a scientific imaging system called OSIRIS („Optical, Spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System„). The Dawn spacecraft, launched by NASA on 27th September 2007, arrived on 6th March 2015 on the asteroid 1 Ceres’ orbit. Additionally, planet HD 209458 b in the constellation Pegasus was unofficially named Osiris. Also, in February 2013, NASA decided to launch a mini-satellite into space, named OSIRIS-3U („Orbital Satellite for Investigating the Response of the Ionosphere to Stimulation and Space Weather„). As I mentioned before, the ancient Egyptians matched Osiris with the Orion Belt. Not surprisingly, NASA’s next missions will be named Orion. The lunar module of the Apollo 16 mission also had the same name, while the logo of the Apollo missions depicts the three stars of the Orion Belt. The Greek myth of Orion is different from the Egyptian one, as for the Greeks Orion was killed by Artemis, the goddess of the Moon, because of his deception of Apollo, the god whose name was given to NASA’s missions to the Moon. And we cannot help but notice how often Osiris appears in connection with space and, especially, with asteroids. American writer Richard Charles Hoagland even claimed that NASA is led by a secret elite of Osiris’ worshippers. He may be right, considering the repeated use of the Egyptian god’s name. In addition, the first supposed landing of a human on the Moon took place on 20th July, the date when the ancient Egyptian calendar began (also the day when Alexander the Great was born). Egyptians also believed that Osiris was born in July. Seven years after the so-called first moon landing, on the exact same day, a terrestrial probe, Viking 1, landed on Mars for the first time. For the ancient Egyptians, Osiris was killed on the seventeenth day of the month of Athyr or Hathor, corresponding to 26th November in the Gregorian calendar, according to the reformed Egyptian calendar (or 4th October according to the old calendar). The last NASA mission with a human crew was Apollo 17, and the next one will be Orion 17. Athyr was the third month of the Egyptian calendar; the Orion 17 mission logo has three stars. And as many Greek chroniclers claimed, Apollo was matched with Horus, Osiris’ son. As a further curiosity, on 4th October, the day when Osiris was believed to have been killed, died physicist Max Planck, who gave his name to a society with 83 fields of research, one of which is the cosmic space. The Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research is NASA’s main collaborator. Also, as a curiosity, on 4th October, the date of Osiris’ death for the ancient Egyptians, Christians celebrate Saint Amun or Ammon, the name of an Egyptian god who, like Osiris, was matched with Enki.
Oddities could not be missing from the Asteroid Belt. In addition to unidentified flying objects that have been spotted in the Belt a few times, American writer Richard Charles Hoagland claims to have found geometric shapes on the surface of the Vesta asteroid, captured during the Dawn mission. Also, in August 2013, a team of astronomers led by university professor David Jewitt noticed a „strange, dizzying object” in the Belt, different from meteorites, that spins around its own axis like a sprinkler, expelling dust. The object, considered an asteroid and named P/2013 P5, has six shining tails. Although it looks like a comet, Professor Jewitt insisted that all evidence suggests it is an asteroid. However, it has six comet tails and its appearance changes periodically. „This is an extraordinary object for us and we will certainly discover others„, said Professor Jewitt, who has not been able to find a rational explanation for the mysterious asteroid’s appearance.
Perhaps the strangest connection to the Asteroid Belt is its mention in the Bible, right at the beginning: „And Elohim said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. And Elohim made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. And Elohim called the firmament Heaven ” (Genesis 1:6-8). What could be that „firmament” called „Heaven„, which divided the waters? It is true that ancient people imagined the sky as a solid surface that covered the Earth like a dome. But could it be a reference to the Asteroid Belt? The Hebrew word for „firmament” is „rakia” or „raqiya„, which means something stretched out. In Sumerian, „rakia” can be translated as „land thrown out of water”, which reminds us of the soil taken from the Pacific, including Enki’s city, and scattered into space. Perhaps this wording is open to interpretation, but the Bible also has other clues that support the hypothesis of the Asteroid Belt’s formation, hidden from the reader’s eyes. The 27 books of the New Testament can be grouped into four parts according to their content, namely: the four gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the 21 epistles, and the Book of Revelation. In Latin, used by the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD when the Bible was made, the four groups are named Evangeliums, Acta Apostolorum, Epistolas and Apocalypsis. Their initials are EAEA, that is twice Ea, the name attributed by the Akkadians to Enki. The New Testament begins with the four gospels, of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, placed in exactly this order. The initials of the four evangelists (in original Matthaios, Markos, Loukas and Ioannes) are MMLI, which means 2051 written in Latin numbers. Is it possible to arrange the gospels in an order that would give a Latin number? The Council of Nicaea, which established this order, was formed at the command of a Roman emperor. At that time, Christianity was preparing to become the official religion of the Roman Empire and the Bible, the holy book of the empire. If the Bible was compiled for the Roman Empire, on the order of a Roman emperor, there is a good chance that a Latin number was hidden in it. What could that number mean? Most likely, a year. Considering that Enki was killed around 2050 BC and his Akkadian name is hidden in the initials of the four parts of the New Testament, there is a good chance that the number derived from the initials of the four evangelists, 2051, is the year of his death (BC). In the Bible, only four books have chapter 51 (Psalms, The Book of Isaiah, The Book of Jeremiah and Ecclesiasticus), all suggesting the idea of the breaking off of a piece of land from the Pacific, where Enki’s house was located, and its scattering in space:
– Psalm 51 in the Greek Septuagint and Latin Vulgate translations of the Bible (in King James Bible is Psalm 52): „Why boastest thou thyself in mischief, O mighty man? the goodness of Yahweh endureth continually. Thy tongue deviseth mischiefs; like a sharp razor, working deceitfully. Thou lovest evil more than good; and lying rather than to speak righteousness. Selah. Thou lovest all devouring words, O thou deceitful tongue. Yahweh shall likewise destroy thee for ever, he shall take thee away, and pluck thee out of thy dwelling place, and root thee out of the land of the living„. This mighty man, who boasts in evil and loves injustice and wickedness, is Enki in all religions. He was destroyed by a god, taken away, plucked from his dwelling place and rooted out of the land of the living.
– The Book of Isaiah: „My righteousness is near; my salvation is gone forth, and mine arms shall judge the people; the isles shall wait upon me, and on mine arm shall they trust„; „Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of Yahweh; awake, as in the ancient days, in the generations of old. Art thou not it that hath cut Rahab, and wounded the dragon?„. Isaiah’s god returns to fight, to make justice. His victories against Rahab (a sea monster, a dragon that represents the primordial abyss) and the dragon, both creatures symbolizing Enki, the Great Serpent and god of the waters, are mentioned. „Lift up your eyes to the heavens, and look upon the earth beneath: for the heavens shall vanish away like smoke, and the earth shall wax old like a garment„; „And forgettest Yahweh thy maker, that hath stretched forth the heavens, and laid the foundations of the earth„. Two passages that talk about how the heavens were stretched out as well as a smoke in them, which could refer to the explosion that led to the formation of the Asteroid Belt. There are also mentions of the sea from which Enki was taken away and his dwelling place: „Art thou not it which hath dried the sea, the waters of the great deep; that hath made the depths of the sea a way for the ransomed to pass over?„; „But I am Yahweh Elohim, that divided the sea, whose waves roared„. This psalm even indicates the city that suffered the wrath of the god: „Awake, awake, stand up, O Jerusalem, which hast drunk at the hand of Yahweh the cup of his fury„, Jerusalem being, as we have seen, the „Foundation of Shalim”, the god of dawn, who was symbolized by the Evening Star.
– The Book of Jeremiah: „Thus saith Yahweh; Behold, I will raise up against Babylon, and against them that dwell in the midst of them that rise up against me, a destroying wind; And will send unto Babylon fanners, that shall fan her, and shall empty her land: for in the day of trouble they shall be against her round about„. As I mentioned earlier, the Babylonians considered their city to be a copy of the city of Eridu, the earthly home of Enki. At the same time, they claimed that there was a Babylon in the heavens, identical to the one on Earth, therefore a cosmic home of Enki. The Book of Jeremiah claims that this Babylon was destroyed by a god. „Babylon is suddenly fallen and destroyed„; „The mighty men of Babylon have forborn to fight, they have remained in their holds: their might hath failed; they became as women: they have burned her dwellingplaces; her bars are broken„; „The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken, and her high gates shall be burned with fire„, passages which describes the fate of the city destroyed in space: shattered, broken and burned. „Therefore, behold, the days come, that I will do judgment upon the graven images of Babylon: and her whole land shall be confounded” indicates who was punished in the celestial Babylon: the idols, that is the Watchers. „And I will punish Bel in Babylon, and I will bring forth out of his mouth that which he hath swallowed up: and the nations shall not flow together any more unto him„. „Bel” is an Akkadian epithet of the gods, translated as „Lord”; therefore, Bel of Babylon is the Lord / god of that city. While in earthly Babylon Bel was Marduk, in the celestial one this epithet was applied to Enki. There are also references to the great sea under which the underground city was located: „O thou that dwellest upon many waters, abundant in treasures, thine end is come, and the measure of thy covetousness„; „when her waves do roar like great waters, a noise of their voice is uttered„; „I will dry up her sea, and make her springs dry„. There is even a reference to the stretching of the heavens or the creation of the Asteroid Belt: „He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heaven by his understanding„. The following passages speak about the raising of the city to the sky and its punishment in heaven: „We would have healed Babylon, but she is not healed: forsake her, and let us go every one into his own country: for her judgment reacheth unto heaven, and is lifted up even to the skies„; „Though Babylon should mount up to heaven, and though she should fortify the height of her strength, yet from me shall spoilers come unto her, saith Yahweh„. The throwing down of the city is also mentioned: „I will stretch out mine hand upon thee, and roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee a burnt mountain„. This chapter of the Book of Jeremiah provides clues for identifying the god who punished the city: „When he uttereth his voice, there is a multitude of waters in the heavens; and he causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth: he maketh lightnings with rain, and bringeth forth the wind out of his treasures„. This description can only fit one deity: Enlil, the god of storms. The reason for the destruction of „Babylon”, according to this chapter, is revenge: „Flee out of the midst of Babylon, and deliver every man his soul: be not cut off in her iniquity; for this is the time of Yahweh’s vengeance; he will render unto her a recompence„. We learn about this revenge from the same place: „it is the vengeance of Yahweh, the vengeance of his temple„. And we remember that the events that led to Enki’s end began with the looting of Enlil’s temple in Nippur by the Akkadians led by Naram-Sin. Then, Enlil cursed the Akkadian Empire, causing drought, famine and revolts, which led to the destruction of the empire. Enki, however, did not give up and regained power both in Mesopotamia and in Egypt, which was the last straw for Enlil’s patience. „We are confounded, because we have heard reproach: shame hath covered our faces: for strangers are come into the sanctuaries of Yahweh’s house” the text says, a reference to the Akkadians who invaded and looted Enlil’s temple.
– The Book of Sirach or Ecclesiasticus says: „And hast delivered me, according to the multitude of they mercies and greatness of thy name, from the teeth of them that were ready to devour me, and out of the hands of such as sought after my life, and from the manifold afflictions which I had; From the choking of fire on every side, and from the midst of the fire which I kindled not; From the depth of the belly of hell, from an unclean tongue, and from lying words. By an accusation to the king from an unrighteous tongue my soul drew near even unto death, my life was near to the hell beneath. They compassed me on every side, and there was no man to help me: I looked for the succour of men, but there was none. Then thought I upon thy mercy, O Lord, and upon thy acts of old, how thou deliverest such as wait for thee, and savest them out of the hands of the enemies. Then lifted I up my supplications from the earth, and prayed for deliverance from death. I called upon the Lord, the Father of my Lord, that he would not leave me in the days of my trouble, and in the time of the proud, when there was no help„. The ancients believed that after death, the humans’ souls went to Enki’s Underworld. The author, named Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira (Simon, son of Jesus, son of Lazarus, son of Sirach in English), seems to have escaped from that world, which he calls the „depth of the belly of hell„, where evil entities sought his soul and wished to devour it. His god, whom he called for help, saved him „in the days of my trouble, and in the time of the proud„. The descent of Jesus (Enlil) into the Underworld and the liberation of captive souls exists in Christian mythology. John of Damascus, considered a saint in Christianity, wrote 13 centuries ago: „You descended into the lowest depths of the Earth and shattered the eternal chains that held the bound, O Christ„. Another Christian saint, John Chrysostom, also mentioned the destruction of the Underworld. According to him, when Jesus descended into the Underworld, hell „was bitter… it was ruined… it was ridiculed… it was killed… it was overthrown… it was bound„. Because of this episode, Christians believe that upon the return of Jesus (Enlil) to Earth, the dead will rise from their graves. This idea is not original, as Christians borrowed it from Zoroastrianism, a religion whose scriptures state that „one-fifth of the dead will rise from their graves, with the same body and appearance they had at the moment of death, even from the exact spot where their breath left their body„.
According to archaeologists, the Mariveles volcano in the Philippines last erupted around 2050 BC. Since the islands are in close proximity to the Mariana Trench, the volcano’s eruption during that time may be the result of the 2051 BC catastrophe, when Enki’s city was ripped from the floor of the Pacific Ocean. The legends of the Filipinos speak about the enchanted city of Biringan, which represents a gateway to another world. It is said to be inhabited by engkantos, capricious and malevolent beings who abduct people and cause diseases. The city’s location is unknown, as Biringan appears and disappears from time to time. Enki is also present in Filipino folklore; named Bakunawa, he is the god of the Underworld, who looks like a dragon or a giant sea serpent. His presence and his city in Filipino myths prove his presence in the area a long time ago. From that episode, a local superstition was born, kept until today: for Filipinos, a single thunderclap announces the death of an important person. Most likely, the superstition recalls the god of storms, whose weapons were lightning and thunder, which killed the exiled god Enki.
We cannot be sure if Enki was killed in 2051 BC or if the Asteroid Belt came from the Mariana Trench. However, we know that four millennia ago Enlil left Earth, which belonged to Marduk. Undoubtedly, Enki’s killing led Emperor Anu to withdraw his son from Sophia’s prison. Tired of the endless fight between the Celestials and the Watchers, he ordered them to conclude a peace treaty, divided the territories and the people, accepted some calamities such as the Deluge or the two great wars, but it had gone too far. The death of one of the Anunnaki, the great gods, was a serious violation of the laws. The maximum punishment for a god was exile according to myths. Gods could be imprisoned, tortured, exiled, but never killed. Enlil violated this rule, so Anu had no choice but to withdraw his title of king and offer it to Marduk, the killed god’s son. It was not an easy choice, as Enlil was his favorite. However, laws were made for everyone and an emperor who would violate them for the sake of his son would lose his subjects’ trust. Thus, Anu decided that Enlil should return to the aeons’ dimension. The Watchers remained exiled on Earth, specifically in the Underworld, but were strictly forbidden from interfering with the humans’ lives. For this reason, ancient texts, including the biblical ones, claim that the gods, starting from that time, no longer appeared to their chosen ones in flesh and bone but secretly, mostly in dreams. Today’s close encounters of the third kind with extraterrestrials, including the humans’ abductions, usually occur at night, under the cover of darkness, because of the same Anu’s order. Because the Watchers did not accept to lose their subjects, but learned to hide better. The fallen gods were not left alone on Earth; few Celestials stayed here, most likely on the Moon, to supervise them from a distance without being detected by humans (due to the same rule of not intervening in the mortals’ existence). According to Rig-Veda, all those who leave Earth stop on the Moon, which is the gateway to the celestial world, and only those who answer its questions are authorized to pass. This means that the Celestials probably established their base on the Earth’s satellite, where the „gate of heaven„, the access route to the aeons’ dimension, is located. A curiosity related to the Moon is the time spent by humans on it. The official version says that there were six manned missions to the Moon where the astronauts spent a total of 80 hours, 32 minutes and 11 seconds, or 289,931 seconds. Although it is impossible for earthlings to have passed through the Van Allen Belt, this number symbolizes something else. Since Homo sapiens originated around 289,200 BC, we can assume that 289,931 BC is the year when Enki and Ninhursag began working on creating humans. The Celestials did their job conscientiously, making sure that the Watchers followed the rules, especially the one that prohibits direct intervention in mankind’s existence. An incident from 1991 provide us with an example of their conscientiousness. In a film made on 15th September 1991, during the STS-48 mission of the Discovery space shuttle, about a dozen bright spots can be seen moving in different directions at varying speeds. At one point, one of the objects approached the shuttle. After a burst of light, the object abruptly changed its trajectory at an angle of 120 degrees and, accelerating, disappeared into space. Just two seconds later, the spot previously occupied by that object was crossed by two luminous traces. We can assume that the bright object that approached Discovery was a Watchers’ ship, chased away by a „warning fire” from the Celestials.
An inscription of the Babylonian king Hammurabi mentions Anu’s order to cede control of Earth to Marduk. The Babylonian king wrote that Anu,
„Determined by Marduk, the firstborn of Enki,
The tasks of Enlil for all mankind,
He made him great among the Watcher gods.
Named Babylon, which is to be exalted,
He made it supreme in the world;
And he established for Marduk, in its midst,
This Hammurabi’s text confirms the account of the Book of Revelation, where the Beast was given power „over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations” (13:7). Marduk’s coronation is described in the Babylonian poem Enuma Elish. In a gathering of the great Anunnaki, the „7 gods of destiny” and hundreds of minor deities, a festive ceremony took place. Enlil offered to Marduk his divine weapon, the bow (thus we understand the origin of the famous Apollo’s weapon, which the Solomonarians guarded and gave only to the most virtuous leaders of the Dacians). Then the transfer of Enlil’s powers and the number 50, the rank of king, took place. This was done by reciting the „50 names” that the new king of the Earth received on this occasion. All the powers of the gods were included in those names, which researchers believe conceal secret, coded messages that we cannot yet decipher. One researcher, Assyriologist Ephraim Avigdor Speiser, emphasized that „the etymologies that actually accompany each name on the long list seem to have a more symbolic and Kabbalistic meaning than a strictly linguistic one„. There does seem to be a „Kabbalistic” meaning to these names received by Marduk, about which Enki stated: „All my instructions are included in the 50 names„. In the book Die funfzig Namen des Marduk („The Fifty Names of Marduk”) from 1936, Dutchman Frans de Liagre Bohl wrote that during Marduk’s coronation ceremony, the first nine names were uttered by Anu’s parents, and three of them have a triple meaning. From such a meaning within another meaning emerges the ability to „revive dead gods„, that Marduk finally received. The next three names (from 10 to 12) contain variants of the epithet „asar” („prince of waters”), the Egyptian name of Osiris / Enki. Thus, the new ruler of the Earth, or the „god of this world” as the Second Epistle to the Corinthians calls him, also received the secret that his father had denied him until then: the ability to revive the dead. A secret that Marduk tries his best to put into practice, in order to revive his father.
Enlil was forced to obey his father’s command, to leave his territory and subjects and to return home. But he did not leave without destroying Sumer before giving it to Marduk, just as the Dacians burned everything in the path of invaders when they were attacked. Five Mesopotamian texts, called Lamentations, describe the catastrophe caused by Enlil, who struck as a storm. One of them, entitled Lament for Ur, represents the mourning of the city by the goddess Ningal, after she asked Enlil to withdraw his destructive storm. She describes the transformation of Ur into a ghost town, recalls the fury of Enlil’s storm and invokes god Nanna (Enki)’s protection against possible future calamities. The goddess begged Anu and Enlil to reconsider the destruction of the city, both in particular and before the Council of the Gods: „I crossed my legs, held hands, shed tears before An, sincerely bowed before Enlil: ‘May my city not be devastated’, I said to them, ‘may Ur not be devastated’„. However, the Council of the Gods decided that the ruling dynasty of the Neo-Sumerian Empire should come to an end. The temple treasury was emptied by the Elamite invaders and the empire’s power center moved to Isin. Several buildings destroyed by Enlil’s storm are listed, abandoned by their protective deities, such as the Agrunkug and Egalmah sanctuaries, the Ekur temple of Enlil, Irikug, Eridug and Unug. „Unfortunately, storm after storm has destroyed the country together: the great storm of the sky, the always roaring storm, the malicious storm that has shattered the country, the storm that has destroyed cities, the storm that has destroyed houses, the storm that has destroyed barns, the storm that has burned down herds, which has laid its hand on holy rituals, which has polluted the council with weight, the storm that has cut off everything good in the country„, claims the Lament for Ur. „My steppe, made for cheerfulness, was burned like in an oven„, adds the goddess of the city. „The reaper storm crawled through the whole country. Like a hurricane, it completely destroyed the city. The storm that annihilates the country has brought the city to silence. The storm that will make everything disappear has come to do harm. The storm that shone like fire has fulfilled its mission above men. The storm commanded by Enlil’s hatred, the storm that took the land far away, covered the city of Ur like a garment, spread over it like a blanket (…) The one who fled from it was overwhelmed by the storm; people groaned. The weak and the strong of Ur died of hunger. Mothers and fathers who did not leave their homes were swallowed up by flames. The little ones who sat in their mothers’ arms were carried away by water like fish„, the text further continues. The consequences of the storm were disastrous: „People, not shards. They covered what was nearby. The walls swallowed up the tall gates, the roads were full of corpses. At the edge of the roads, where the crows gathered for a feast, they were scattered. On the edges of all streets and roads, corpses were found. Fields, once full of dancers, were filled with piles of bodies. The blood of the country fills the holes, as metal fills a mold. The corpses dissolved like fat left in the Sun„. Other texts also speak about the abandonment of all of Sumer by gods and humans due to a „bad wind” that caused „cities to be abandoned, temples to be abandoned and herds to be emptied„. „The storm devastated the cities, devastated the houses„, the Lamentations say. The dead remained unburied: „dead people, like fat left out in the Sun, melted away„. In the fields, „large and small livestock became invisible, all living creatures perished„. Also „only thin weeds grew on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates, while reeds rotted in the stench in the marshes„. We do not know what kind of storms caused by Enlil led to the destruction of Sumer. Strong winds, rain, floods, fires… It is certain only that the survivors left Sumer, scattering wherever they could.
What happened to the Sumerian survivors remains a mystery, but it is possible to learn about the fate of some of them from the legend of Troy. In Antiquity it was believed that the city, famous because of Homer’s Iliad, was founded by Thracians. Did the Trojans really belong to the numerous Thracian people? In the Aeneid, Roman poet Virgil claims that the Trojans come from Italy and the ancients believed that Italy was inhabited in ancient times by Thracians, which is why the Daco-Roman wars were considered fratricidal. And once again we come to the same hypothesis. The Romans, who claimed that Rome was founded by a group of Trojan refugees, concealed in their mythology a strange version, at least at first glance. For them, the founders of Rome were Romulus and Remus, descendants of Aeneas, son of goddess Venus (Aphrodite) and a Trojan prince. Rome’s name comes from that of Romulus. However, read backwards, the name Roma (the Latin name of Rome) becomes Amor, a god who the Romans also called Cupid (Eros for the Greeks), son of the goddess of love and the god of war. Thus, the Romans suggested not only their descent from Venus / Aphrodite, but also justified their warlike nature, which allowed them to found an empire. Curiously, the second founder of Rome, Remus, when read backwards becomes Sumer. Therefore, the Romans implied that they were descendants not only of the goddess of love and the god of war, but also of the Sumerians. Is it possible that the Trojans were Sumerians? We have seen that the Sumerians were part of the Thracian people, just like the Trojans. Therefore, at least theoretically, it is possible that Troy was occupied at some point by Sumerians. However, history can help us determine the exact identity of the Trojans. The Trojan War began in 1198 BC, the same year in which the Hittite Empire collapsed due to the Sea Peoples’ invasion, who were made up of Thracians, Cretans and Ionians. Until that moment, Troy (also known as Ilion by the Greeks) had been a part of the Hittite Empire. The Hittites were Aryans who appeared shortly before 2000 BC in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey), and their place of origin remains an enigma for researchers. If the Sumerians, an Aryan people, disappeared from Mesopotamia during Sumer’s destruction in 2004 BC and Aryans with an unknown origin appeared in the north during that time, we can assume that the Hittites are the surviving Sumerians who sought refuge in the north, on the shores of the Black Sea. They mixed with the local Thracians, who were also Aryans, and became known from that moment on as Hittites. Around 1900 BC they occupied Troy (which they called Wilusa), and three centuries later they founded their own empire. Therefore, Homer’s Trojans, besieged by the Achaeans, were Hittites, former Sumerians (or Thracians, more precisely). And Troy represented the last bastion of the Hittite Empire against the Sea Peoples’ invasion. Although Homer claimed that the attackers were Greeks, he left behind several clues about their identity. The poet called them „Akhaioi” and „Danaoi„, which are equivalent to „Ekwesh” and „Denyen” / „Tanaju„, two of the names given by the Egyptians to the Sea Peoples. The Greeks could not have attacked Troy because they too were being attacked during that time by the Sea Peoples, an event known to researchers as „the Dorian Invasion” and to the ancient Greeks as „the Return of the Heracleidae„. The Greek name for Troy, Ilion, was initially Wilion, which is very similar to Wilusa of the Hittites. Furthermore, a letter from an unknown Hittite king to the king of Ahhiyawa (the kingdom of the Achaeans) mentions a „Wilusa episode” in which hostilities occurred on the part of those from Ahhiyawa, which suggests the Trojan War. It is also worth mentioning that two of the Hittite kings were named Piyamaradu and Alaksandu, names similar to Priamos (Priam in English, the king of Troy during the Homeric War) and Alexandros (Alexander, the name given at birth to Paris, one of Priam’s sons).
Another survivor of the catastrophe in Sumer was Abraham, according to the Bible, Quran and Talmud, who left before the disaster thanks to his god, Marduk, the new king of the Earth.